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Carlsen Anand Game 9 Annotated Bibliography

The World Chess Championship 2016 was a chess match between reigning world champion Magnus Carlsen and challenger Sergey Karjakin to determine the World Chess Champion.[2] Carlsen has been world champion since 2013, while Karjakin qualified as challenger by winning the 2016 Candidates Tournament. The best-of-12 match, organized by FIDE and its commercial partner Agon, was played in New York City between 11 and 30 November 2016.

Carlsen's positional style and Karjakin's defensive abilities meant that neither player managed to get many decisive results. The match opened with seven consecutive draws before Karjakin won the eighth game. Carlsen evened the score by winning the tenth game. All other games were drawn, leaving the match at a 6–6 tie, so tie breaks decided the match. After two draws to begin the rapid chess tie break, Carlsen won the remaining two games to win the match and retain his title.[3]

Carlsen–Karjakin, tie-break 4

The final position in the final tie-break game. Carlsen (as White) has just played the queen sacrifice 50.Qh6+!! It is mate next move (50...Kxh6 51.Rh8#; 50...gxh6 51.Rxf7#).


  • 1Planning timeline
  • 2Candidates Tournament
  • 3Players
  • 4Championship match
    • 4.1Organization and location
    • 4.2Match regulations
    • 4.3Opening press conference
    • 4.4Broadcast
    • 4.5Schedule and results
    • 4.6Games
      • 4.6.1Game 1: Carlsen–Karjakin, ½–½
      • 4.6.2Game 2: Karjakin–Carlsen, ½–½
      • 4.6.3Game 3: Carlsen–Karjakin, ½–½
      • 4.6.4Game 4: Karjakin–Carlsen, ½–½
      • 4.6.5Game 5: Carlsen–Karjakin, ½–½
      • 4.6.6Game 6: Karjakin–Carlsen, ½–½
      • 4.6.7Game 7: Karjakin–Carlsen, ½–½
      • 4.6.8Game 8: Carlsen–Karjakin, 0–1
      • 4.6.9Game 9: Karjakin–Carlsen, ½–½
      • 4.6.10Game 10: Carlsen–Karjakin, 1–0
      • 4.6.11Game 11: Karjakin–Carlsen, ½–½
      • 4.6.12Game 12: Carlsen–Karjakin, ½–½
    • 4.7Tie-break games
  • 5Aftermath
  • 6References
  • 7External links

Planning timeline[edit]

  • November 27, 2014: At the closing ceremony for the 2014 championship, FIDE president Ilyumzhinov announces the 2016 match will take place in the United States.[4]
  • October 4, 2015: At the 2015 Chess World Cup, Ilyumzhinov reiterates the location as the United States, saying that the date and place were already final.[5]
  • December 15, 2015: FIDE and Agon sign media rights deal with Norwegian broadcaster NRK, listing 7-figures (in unknown currency) until 2020.[6]
  • January 8, 2016: FIDE announces that Agon has made operational an official broadcasting platform (worldchess.com) for the World Chess Championship cycle events (already present in October 2015).[7]
  • March 1, 2016: Agon announce that the city will be New York City, with approval from its mayor.[8]
  • March 4, 2016: Agon announce that only approved broadcasters will be allowed to retransmit moves from the Candidates and ensuing World Championship.[9]
  • March 28, 2016: Sergey Karjakin wins the Candidates Tournament 2016 to qualify to play Magnus Carlsen.
  • May 26, 2016: Agon head Ilya Merenzon says that "The contract between FIDE and Agon is finalized and is being signed. The contract between the players and FIDE will be finalized in the next 2–3 weeks."[10]
  • June 7, 2016: Agon announces that a venue has been found in New York City, with only sponsor details and paperwork left to be finalized in the next 2 weeks.[11]
  • August 8, 2016: Agon announce the venue as the Fulton Market building in the South Street Seaport in lower Manhattan.[12]
  • August 30, 2016: Agon publish on their website that PhosAgro has signed a strategic partnership contract as a sponsor of the 2016 FIDE World Chess Championship.[13]
  • September 12, 2016: Agon announce EG Capital Advisors as a sponsor, and give pricing packages for virtual reality viewing options.[14][15]
  • September 30, 2016: Tickets go on sale.[16] The lowest price listed is $75 per game.
  • October 17, 2016: Agon announce their new broadcast model for the World Championship.[17][18]

Candidates Tournament[edit]

Main article: Candidates Tournament 2016

The Candidates Tournament to determine the challenger was held on 11–30 March 2016 in Moscow, Russia, with FIDE's commercial partner Agon as the official organizer,[19][20] with support from the Russian Chess Federation.[21] The tournament was an 8-player double round-robin, with five different qualification paths possible:[20] the loser of the World Chess Championship 2014 match, the top two finishers in the Chess World Cup 2015, the top two finishers in the FIDE Grand Prix 2014–15, next two highest rated players (average FIDE rating on the 12 monthly lists from January to December 2015, with at least 30 games played) who played in Chess World Cup 2015 or FIDE Grand Prix 2014–15, and one player nominated by Agon (the organizers).

At the time of the event, five of the players were ranked in the top 10 on the FIDE rating list.[22]


Source: moscow2016.fide.com

Results by round[edit]

Pairings and results[23]

Numbers in parentheses indicate players' scores prior to the round.

Round 1 – 11 March 2016
Viswanathan AnandVeselin Topalov1–0C65 Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defence
Anish GiriLevon Aronian½–½D37 Queen's Gambit Declined
Sergey KarjakinPeter Svidler½–½D16 Slav Defence, Soultanbéieff Variation
Hikaru NakamuraFabiano Caruana½–½A30 English Opening, Symmetrical Variation
Round 2 – 12 March 2016
Levon Aronian (½)Viswanathan Anand (1)½–½D37 Queen's Gambit Declined
Fabiano Caruana (½)Anish Giri (½)½–½B32 Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defence
Sergey Karjakin (½)Hikaru Nakamura (½)1–0E15 Queen's Indian Defence, Fianchetto Variation, Check Variation, Intermezzo Line
Peter Svidler (½)Veselin Topalov (0)½–½C67 Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defence
Round 3 – 13 March 2016
Viswanathan Anand (1½)Fabiano Caruana (1)½–½C65 Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defence
Anish Giri (1)Sergey Karjakin (1½)½–½E15 Queen's Indian Defence, Fianchetto Variation, Check Variation, Intermezzo Line
Hikaru Nakamura (½)Peter Svidler (1)½–½D16 Slav Defence, Soultanbéieff Variation
Veselin Topalov (½)Levon Aronian (1)0–1A29 English, Four Knights, Kingside Fianchetto
Round 4 – 15 March 2016
Fabiano Caruana (1½)Veselin Topalov (½)½–½C50 Giuoco Piano
Sergey Karjakin (2)Viswanathan Anand (2)1–0A06 Réti Opening
Hikaru Nakamura (1)Anish Giri (1½)½–½D45 Semi-Slav, Stoltz Variation
Peter Svidler (1½)Levon Aronian (2)½–½A22 English, Four Knights, Smyslov System
Round 5 – 16 March 2016
Viswanathan Anand (2)Hikaru Nakamura (1½)½–½C65 Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defence
Levon Aronian (2½)Fabiano Caruana (2)½–½A77 Benoni Defence, Classical, Czerniak Defence, Tal Line
Anish Giri (2)Peter Svidler (2)½–½D73 Neo-Grünfeld Defence
Veselin Topalov (1)Sergey Karjakin (3)½–½E15 Queen's Indian Defence, Fianchetto Variation, Check Variation, Intermezzo Line
Round 6 – 17 March 2016
Viswanathan Anand (2½)Peter Svidler (2½)1–0C88 Ruy Lopez, Closed, Anti-Marshall 8.a4
Veselin Topalov (1½)Anish Giri (2½)½–½E61 Indian Game, West Indian Defence
Levon Aronian (3)Hikaru Nakamura (2)1–0E15 Queen's Indian Defence, Fianchetto Variation, Nimzowistch Variation
Fabiano Caruana (2½)Sergey Karjakin (3½)½–½E15 Queen's Indian Defence, Fianchetto Variation, Check Variation, Intermezzo Line
Round 7 – 19 March 2016
Peter Svidler (2½)Fabiano Caruana (3)½–½A35 English, Symmetrical, Four Knights
Sergey Karjakin (4)Levon Aronian (4)½–½A08 King's Indian Attack
Hikaru Nakamura (2)Veselin Topalov (2)1–0D12 Slav Defence, Quiet Variation, Schallop Defence
Anish Giri (3)Viswanathan Anand (3½)½–½D37 Queen's Gambit Declined, Barmen Variation
Round 8 – 20 March 2016
Peter Svidler (3)Sergey Karjkain (4½)½–½A29 English, Four Knights, Fianchetto Line
Fabiano Caruana (3½)Hikaru Nakamura (3)1–0C65 Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defence
Levon Aronian (4½)Anish Giri (3½)½–½D43 Semi-Slav Defense
Veselin Topalov (2)Viswanathan Anand (4)½–½A11 Queen's Gambit Declined, Barmen Variation
Round 9 – 21 March 2016
Veselin Topalov (2½)Peter Svidler (3½)½–½C88 Ruy Lopez, Closed, Anti-Marshall 8.a4
Viswanathan Anand (4½)Levon Aronian (5)1–0C50 Giuoco Piano
Anish Giri (4)Fabiano Caruana (4½)½–½D70 Neo-Grünfeld Defence, Goglidze Attack
Hikaru Nakamura (3)Sergey Karjakin (5)½–½E15 Queen's Indian Defence, Fianchetto Variation, Check Variation, Intermezzo Line
Round 10 – 23 March 2016
Peter Svidler (4)Hikaru Nakamura (3½)½–½A29 English, Four Knights, Fianchetto Line
Sergey Karjakin (5½)Anish Giri (4½)½–½D45f Semi-Slav, Stoltz Variation
Fabiano Caruana (5)Viswanathan Anand (5½)1–0A29 English, Four Knights, Fianchetto Line
Levon Aronian (5)Veselin Topalov (3)½–½A29 English, Four Knights, Fianchetto Line
Round 11 – 24 March 2016
Levon Aronian (5½)Peter Svidler (4½)0–1D16 Slav Defence, Soultanbéieff Variation
Veselin Topalov (3½)Fabiano Caruana (6)½–½A33 English, Symmetrical, Anti-Benoni
Viswanathan Anand (5½)Sergey Karjakin (6)1–0A07 Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defence
Anish Giri (5)Hikaru Nakamura (4)½–½C50 Giuoco Piano
Round 12 – 25 March 2016
Peter Svidler (5½)Anish Giri (5½)½–½A29 English, Four Knights, Fianchetto Line
Hikaru Nakamura (4½)Viswanathan Anand (6½)1–0A29 English, Four Knights, Fianchetto Line
Sergey Karjakin (6)Veselin Topalov (4)1–0B90 Sicilian Defence, Najdorf Variation, Adams Attack
Fabiano Caruana (6½)Levon Aronian (5½)½–½C78 Ruy Lopez, Closed, Martinez Variation
Round 13 – 27 March 2016
Fabiano Caruana (7)Peter Svidler (6)½–½C78 Ruy Lopez, Closed, Martinez Variation
Levon Aronian (6)Sergey Karjakin (7)½–½A29 English, Four Knights, Fianchetto Line
Veselin Topalov (4)Hikaru Nakamura (5½)0–1D37 Queen's Gambit Declined
Viswanathan Anand (6½)Anish Giri (6)½–½C50 Giuoco Piano
Round 14 – 28 March 2014
Peter Svidler (6½)Viswanathan Anand (7)½–½A29 English, Four Knights, Fianchetto Line
Anish Giri (6½)Veselin Topalov (4)½–½E06 Catalan Opening, Closed Variation
Hikaru Nakamura (6½)Levon Aronian (6½)½–½D38 Queen's Gambit Declined, Razogin Variation, Alekhine Variation
Sergey Karjakin (7½)Fabiano Caruana (7½)1–0B67 Sicilian Defence, Richter-Rauzer Attack, Neo-Modern Variation


Going into the final round, Caruana and Karjakin were tied for the lead, half a point ahead of Anand, and played each other in the final round. Due to the tie breaks situation, the only possible tournament winners were Caruana and Karjakin, with Karjakin the tournament winner if they played a draw. Karjakin had the further advantage of white in the final game.[24] Caruana played for a win in the final round, but overpressed, and at the critical moment, Karjakin calculated correctly and won the game and tournament.[25] In retrospect, Karjakin's draw with black in his other game against Caruana, which Chessbase called a "brilliant defensive effort",[26] was critical. Karjakin's victory qualified him as the official challenger.


Head to head record[edit]

As of August 2016, Carlsen and Karjakin had played each other 21 times (at long time controls) with Carlsen leading 4 wins to 1 with 16 draws. Their most recent encounter was at the July Bilbao double round robin tournament, where Carlsen won one game while the other was drawn.[27]

Lead up to match[edit]

After his victory in the Candidates Tournament 2016, Karjakin was scheduled to play in the Norway Chess event in April with a head-to-head game against Carlsen on tap, but cancelled his appearance, citing fatigue from the Candidates victory.[28] He then surprised Carlsen by agreeing to play in the double round-robin Bilbao tournament in July.[29] The games at the Bilbao tournament were played at a slightly faster initial rate (40 moves in 90 minutes) than that used in the World Chess Championship (40 moves in 100 minutes).[30] Carlsen defeated Karjakin in their first game in the Bilbao tournament,[31] while the second was drawn. He credited the faster time control in making it difficult for Karjakin to deal with pressure.[32]

Championship match[edit]

Organization and location[edit]

The match was held under the auspices of FIDE, the world chess federation, with the organisation rights belonging to Agon, its commercial partner.[19] It took place between 11–30 November in the renovated Fulton Market Building (formerly Fulton Fish Market) in the South Street Seaport in New York City,[33] with the two contestants competing for a prize fund of at least 1 million euros (US$1.1m).[34] The chief arbiter was Takis Nikolopoulos from Greece.[35]

Match regulations[edit]

According to the match regulations put forward by FIDE, the players could not draw a game by agreement before Black's 30th move, but they could claim a draw by threefold repetition.[36] The time control was set at:[2]

  • for full-time control games, 100 minutes for the first 40 moves, 50 minutes for the next 20 moves and then 15 minutes for the rest of the game plus an additional 30 seconds per move starting from move 1.
  • for rapid games, 25 minutes with 10 seconds increment per move (3.7.1a). The player with the best score after four games is World Champion; if tied, players will play up to five two-game blitz matches.
  • for blitz games (except the final sudden death game), 5 minutes with 3 seconds increment per move (3.7.2). The player with the best score after any two-game blitz match is World Champion; if tied, players will play one sudden death game.
  • for the final sudden death game, 5 minutes for white pieces, 4 minutes for black pieces, no increment for the first 60 moves, 3 seconds increment per move starting at the move 61 (3.7.3). The winner of this game is World Champion; if drawn, Black is the winner and World Champion.

Opening press conference[edit]

The opening press conference was held on November 10. FIDE President Kirsan Ilyumzhinov was unable to attend following sanctions from the US Government over his ties with the Syrian regime, but communicated by Skype instead with vice president Gelfer the official FIDE representative (rather than deputy president Makropoulos). Agon's CEO Ilya Merenzon attended, and the two major sponsors (EG Capital Advisors and PhosAgro) had representatives, with both players and the chief arbiter rounding out the principals.[37]


The video feed on the official website was only available after paying a fee. Live commentary was provided by Agon and Chess24. Prior to the match AGON tried to deny other websites to show moves of the match. AGON went to court over this but lost their case.[38]

Schedule and results[edit]

10 November 2016ThursdayOpening ceremony
11 November 2016FridayGame 1
12 November 2016SaturdayGame 2
13 November 2016SundayRest day
14 November 2016MondayGame 3
15 November 2016TuesdayGame 4
16 November 2016WednesdayRest day
17 November 2016ThursdayGame 5
18 November 2016FridayGame 6
19 November 2016SaturdayRest day
20 November 2016SundayGame 7
21 November 2016MondayGame 8
22 November 2016TuesdayRest day
23 November 2016WednesdayGame 9
24 November 2016ThursdayGame 10
25 November 2016FridayRest day
26 November 2016SaturdayGame 11
27 November 2016SundayRest day
28 November 2016MondayGame 12
29 November 2016TuesdayRest day
30 November 2016WednesdayTie-break games
30 November 2016WednesdayAwards and closing

The games commenced each day at 14:00 local time in New York City.

RatingClassical gamesRapid gamesPoints
 Sergey Karjakin (RUS)2772½½½½½½½1½0½½½½007
 Magnus Carlsen (NOR)2853½½½½½½½0½1½½½½119


View of the South Street Seaport, the location of the 2016 World Championship

"Carlsen" redirects here. For other people named Carlsen, see Carlsen (name).

For people with a similar name, see Magnus Carlsson (disambiguation) and Magnus Karlsson (disambiguation).

Sven Magnus Øen Carlsen (Norwegian: [sven ˈmɑŋnʉs øːn ˈkɑːɭsn̩]; born 30 November 1990) is a Norwegian chessgrandmaster and the current World Chess Champion. A chess prodigy, Carlsen earned his grandmaster title at the age of 13 years and 148 days.

Native to Tønsberg, Carlsen was introduced to chess at the age of 5 and played in his first tournament at the age of 8. He earned his grandmaster title in 2004 and was competing successfully against the world's strongest grandmasters by 2007. He surpassed an Elo rating of 2800 in 2009 and reached No. 1 in the FIDE rankings in 2010, becoming the youngest person ever to achieve those feats.

Carlsen became World Champion in 2013 by defeatingViswanathan Anand. In the subsequent year, he retained his title against Anand, won both the 2014 World Rapid Championship and World Blitz Championship, thus becoming the first player to simultaneously hold all three titles, and reached a peak rating of 2882, the highest in history. In 2016, he defended his title against Sergey Karjakin.

Known for his attacking style as a teenager, Carlsen has since developed into a universal player. He uses a variety of openings to make it more difficult for opponents to prepare against him and reduce the effect of computer analysis. He has stated the middlegame is his favourite part of the game as it "comes down to pure chess." His positional mastery and endgame prowess have drawn comparisons to those of former World Champions Bobby Fischer, Anatoly Karpov, Vasily Smyslov, and José Raúl Capablanca.


Carlsen was born in Tønsberg, Norway, on 30 November 1990, to Sigrun Øen, a chemical engineer, and Henrik Albert Carlsen, an IT consultant.[1] The family spent one year in Espoo, Finland, and then in Brussels, Belgium, before returning to Norway in 1998, where they lived in Lommedalen, Bærum. They later moved to Haslum.[2] Carlsen showed an aptitude for intellectual challenges at a young age: at two years, he could solve 50-piece jigsaw puzzles; at four, he enjoyed assembling Lego sets with instructions intended for children aged 10–14.[3] His father, a keen amateur chess player,[4] taught him to play chess at the age of 5, although he initially showed little interest in the game.[5] He has three sisters, and in 2010 he stated that one of the things that first motivated him to take up chess seriously was the desire to beat his elder sister at the game.[6]

The first chess book Carlsen read was Find the Plan by Bent Larsen,[7] and his first book on openings was Eduard Gufeld's The Complete Dragon.[8] Carlsen developed his early chess skills by playing by himself for hours on end—moving the pieces around, searching for combinations, and replaying games and positions shown to him by his father. Simen Agdestein emphasises Carlsen's exceptional memory, stating that he was able to recall the areas, population numbers, flags and capitals of all the countries in the world by the age of five. Later, Carlsen had memorised the areas, population numbers, coat-of-arms and administrative centres of "virtually all" Norwegian municipalities.[9] Carlsen participated in his first tournament—the youngest division of the 1999 Norwegian Chess Championship—at the age of 8 years and 7 months, and scored 6½/11.[10]

Carlsen was later coached at the Norwegian College of Elite Sport by the country's top player, Grandmaster (GM) Simen Agdestein,[1] who in turn cites Norwegian football managerEgil "Drillo" Olsen as a key inspiration for his coaching strategy.[11] In 2000, Agdestein introduced Carlsen to Torbjørn Ringdal Hansen, a former Norwegian junior champion and later International Master (IM) and Grandmaster (GM),[12] as Ringdal served a one-year siviltjeneste (an alternative civilian service programme) at the college. Over the course of this year, Carlsen's rating rose from 904 in June 2000, to 1907. Carlsen's breakthrough occurred in the Norwegian junior teams championship in September 2000, where Carlsen scored 3½/5 against the top junior players of the country, and a performance rating (PR) of about 2000.[13] Apart from chess, which he studied about three to four hours a day, Carlsen's favourite pastimes included playing football and reading Donald Duck comics.[14] Carlsen also practised skiing until the age of ten.[15]

From autumn 2000 to the end of 2002, Carlsen played almost 300 rated tournament games, as well as several blitz tournaments, and participated in other minor events.[16] In October 2002, he placed sixth in the European Under-12 Championship in Peñiscola.[17] In the following month, he tied for first place in the World Under-12 Championship in Heraklio, placing second to Ian Nepomniachtchi on tiebreak.[18] After this, he obtained three IM norms in relatively quick succession; his first was at the January 2003 Gausdal Troll Masters (score 7/10, 2453 PR), the second was at the June 2003 Salongernas IM-tournament in Stockholm (6/9, 2470 PR), and the third and final IM norm was obtained at the July 2003 Politiken Cup in Copenhagen (8/11, 2503 PR). He was officially awarded the IM title on 20 August 2003.[19] After finishing primary school, Carlsen took a year off to participate in international chess tournaments held in Europe during the fall season of 2003, returning to complete secondary education at a sports school.[20][21] During the year away from school, he placed joint-third in the European Under-14 Championship[22] and ninth in the World Under-14 Championship.[23]

Chess career[edit]


Carlsen vs. Ernst, 2004

Position after 17...c5. The game continued 18.Ng6 fxg6 19.Qxe6+ Kh8 20.hxg6 Ng8 21.Bxh6 gxh6 22.Rxh6+ Nxh6 23.Qxe7 Nf7 24.gxf7 Kg7 25.Rd3 Rd6 26.Rg3+ Rg6 27.Qe5+ Kxf7 28.Qf5+ Rf6 29.Qd7#

Carlsen made headlines after his victory in the C group at the 2004 Corus chess tournament in Wijk aan Zee. Carlsen obtained a score of 10½/13, losing just one game (against the highest-rated player of the C group, Duško Pavasovič).[24] As a result of the victory, he earned his first GM norm, and achieved a PR of 2702. Particularly notable was his win over Sipke Ernst in the penultimate round, when Carlsen sacrificed material to give mate in just 29 moves.[25] Carlsen's victory in the C group qualified him to play in the B group in 2005, and it led Lubomir Kavalek, writing for the Washington Post, to give him the title "Mozart of chess". Agdestein said that Carlsen had an excellent memory and played an unusually wide range of openings.[26] Carlsen's prowess caught the attention of Microsoft, who became his sponsor.[27]

Carlsen obtained his second GM norm at the MoscowAeroflot Open in February. On 17 March, in a blitz chess tournament in Reykjavík, Iceland, Carlsen defeated former World Champion Anatoly Karpov. The blitz tournament was a preliminary event leading up to a rapid knockout tournament beginning the next day. In that event, Carlsen was paired with Garry Kasparov, then the top-rated player in the world. Carlsen achieved a draw in their first game but lost the second, and was thus knocked out of the tournament.[28]

In the sixth Dubai Open Chess Championship, held 18–28 April, Carlsen obtained his third and final GM norm. This achievement made him the world's youngest GM at the time, as well as the second-youngest GM in history at the time (after Sergey Karjakin, who earned the title at the age of 12 years and 7 months).[29] Carlsen played in the FIDE World Chess Championship, thus becoming the youngest player ever to participate in one, but was knocked out in the first round by Levon Aronian.[30]

In July, Carlsen and Berge Østenstad (then the reigning Norwegian champion) tied for first in the Norwegian Chess Championship, each scoring 7/9. A two-game match between them was arranged to decide the title. Both games were drawn, which left Østenstad the champion because he had superior tiebreaks in the tournament.[31]


In the Smartfish Chess Masters event at the Drammen International Chess Festival 2004–05, Carlsen defeated Alexei Shirov, then ranked No. 10[32] in the world, as well as the co-winner of the tournament.[33] In the semifinals of the Ciudad de León rapid chess tournament in June, Carlsen played a four-game match against Viswanathan Anand, who was ranked No. 2 in the world at the time and had won the 2003 World Rapid Chess Championship.[34] Anand won 3–1.[35]

In the Norwegian Chess Championship, Carlsen again finished in shared first place, this time with his mentor Simen Agdestein. A playoff between them was played between 7 and 10 November. This time, Carlsen had the better tiebreaks, but the rule giving the title to the player with better tiebreak scores in the event of a 1–1 draw had been revoked previously. The match was closely fought—Agdestein won the first game, Carlsen the second—so the match went into a series of two-game rapid matches until there was a winner. Carlsen won the first rapid game, Agdestein the second. Then followed three draws until Agdestein won the championship title with a victory in the sixth rapid game.[36]

At the end of 2005, Carlsen participated at the Chess World Cup in Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia. In the knockout tournament, he upset the 44th-ranked Zurab Azmaiparashvili in round one, and proceeded to defeat Farrukh Amonatov and Ivan Cheparinov to reach the round of 16. There, Carlsen lost to Evgeny Bareev,[37] but then won against Joël Lautier and Vladimir Malakhov before losing again to Gata Kamsky. Thus, Carlsen finished in tenth place and became the youngest player to be an official World Championship Candidate.[38] In October, he took first place at the Arnold Eikrem Memorial in Gausdal with a score 8/9 and a PR of 2792.[39]


Carlsen qualified for a place in the Corus B group due to his first-place finish in Corus group C in 2004. His shared first place with Alexander Motylev with 9/13 (+6−1=6) qualified him to play in the Corus group A in 2007.[40]

At the 2006 international 'Bosna' tournament in Sarajevo, Carlsen shared first place with Liviu-Dieter Nisipeanu (who won on tiebreak evaluation) and Vladimir Malakhov; this could be regarded as Carlsen's first "A" elite tournament win, although it was not a clear first.[41]

Carlsen was close to winning the 2006 Norwegian Chess Championship outright, but a last-round loss to Berge Østenstad dropped him into another tie for first place with Agdestein. It also prevented Carlsen from beating Agdestein's record as the youngest Norwegian champion ever.[42] Nonetheless, in the playoff held from 19–21 September, Carlsen won 3–1. After two draws at standard time controls, Carlsen won both rapid games in round two, securing his first Norwegian championship win.[43]

Carlsen won the Glitnir Blitz Tournament in Iceland.[44] He achieved a 2–0 win over Viswanathan Anand in the semifinals and achieved the same score in the finals.[45] He scored 6/8 in the 37th Chess Olympiad and achieved a PR of 2820.[46]

In the Midnight Sun Chess Tournament in Tromsø, Carlsen finished second behind Sergei Shipov.[47] In the Biel Grandmaster Tournament, he placed second, beating the tournament winner Alexander Morozevich twice.[48]

In the NH Chess Tournament held in Amsterdam in August, Carlsen participated in an "Experience" vs. "Rising Stars" Scheveningen team match. The "Rising Stars" won the match 28–22, with Carlsen achieving the best individual score for the Rising Stars team (6½/10) and a 2700 PR, thus winning the right to participate in the 2007 Melody Amber tournament.[49]

With a score of 7½/15, Carlsen placed 8th out of 16 participants at the World Blitz Championship in Rishon LeZion, Israel.[50] In the rapid chess tournament Rencontres nationales et internationales d'échecs in Cap d'Agde, France, he reached the semifinal, losing there to Sergey Karjakin.[51] In November, Carlsen achieved a shared 8th place of 10 participants in the Mikhail Tal Memorial in Moscow with two losses and seven draws. He finished ninth in a group of 18 participants in the associated blitz tournament, which was won by Anand.[52]


Playing in the top group of the Corus chess tournament for the first time, Carlsen placed last with nine draws and four losses, scoring 4½/13.[53] In the Linares chess tournament, Carlsen played against top-rated players Veselin Topalov, Viswanathan Anand, Peter Svidler, Alexander Morozevich, Levon Aronian, Peter Leko, and Vassily Ivanchuk. Despite being rated significantly lower than any of them, he finished in second place on tiebreaks with 7½/14, having scored four wins, seven draws and three losses, and achieving a PR of 2778.[54]

Carlsen played for the first time in the Melody Amber blind and rapid chess tournament in Monte Carlo in March. In the 11 rounds, he achieved eight draws and three losses in the blindfold games, as well as three wins, seven draws and one loss in the rapid games. This resulted in a shared ninth place in the blindfold, shared second place in the rapid (behind Anand), and a shared eighth place overall.[55]

In May and June, he participated in the Candidates Tournament for the FIDE World Chess Championship 2007, facing Levon Aronian in a six-game match at standard time controls, which Carlsen drew (+2−2=2) by coming from behind twice. The four-game rapid playoff was drawn as well (+1−1=2), with Carlsen winning the last game to stay in the match. Eventually, Aronian eliminated Carlsen from the tournament after winning both tiebreak blitz games.[56]

In July and August, Carlsen won the Biel Grandmaster Tournament with a 6/10 record and a PR of 2753. His score was matched by Alexander Onischuk and they played a match to break the tie. After drawing two rapid and two blitz games, Carlsen won the armageddon game.[57] Immediately after the Biel tournament, Carlsen entered the open Arctic Chess Challenge in Tromsø, but his fourth-place result with +5=4 was a slight underperformance in terms of rating. In the first round, Carlsen conceded a draw to his classmate Brede Hagen (rated 2034)[58] after having a lost position at one point.[59] A game which attracted some attention was his sixth-round win over his father, Henrik Carlsen.[60]

Carlsen reached the semifinal round of the World Chess Cup in December, after defeating Michael Adams in the round of 16 and Ivan Cheparinov in the quarterfinals. In the semifinal, he was eliminated by the eventual winner, Gata Kamsky, scoring ½–1½.[61]


In the top group A of the 69th Corus chess tournament, Carlsen scored 8/13, achieving a PR of 2830. Carlsen won five games, lost two and drew six, sharing first place with Levon Aronian.[62] At the Linares chess tournament, Carlsen had another 2800+ PR, scoring 8/14. He finished in sole second place, ½ point behind the winner World Champion Viswanathan Anand.[63]

In March, Carlsen played for the second time in the Melody Amber blind and rapid chess tournament, held in Nice for the first time. In the 11 rounds he achieved four wins, four draws and two losses in the blindfold, and three wins, two losses, and six draws in the rapid. This resulted in a shared fifth place in the blindfold, shared third place in the rapid and a shared second place in the overall tournament.[64]

Carlsen was one of 21 players in the six-tournament FIDE Grand Prix 2008–2009, a qualifier for the World Chess Championship 2012. In the first tournament, in Baku, Azerbaijan, he finished in a three-way tie for first place, with another 2800 PR. He later withdrew from the Grand Prix cycle despite his initial success, criticising FIDE for "changing the rules dramatically in the middle of a World Championship cycle".[65]

Carlsen won a rapid match against Peter Leko held in Miskolc, Hungary, scoring 5–3.[66] In June, Carlsen won the annual Aerosvit chess tournament,[67] finishing undefeated with 8/11 in a category 19 field and achieving a PR of 2877, his best PR at that point in his career.[68] Playing in the category 18 Biel Grandmaster Tournament, Carlsen finished third with 6/10, with a PR of 2740.[69]

In the Mainz World Rapid Chess Championship, Carlsen finished in second place after losing the final to defending champion Anand 3–1.[70] In the qualification round Carlsen scored 1½–½ against Judit Polgár, 1–1 against Anand and 1–1 against Alexander Morozevich.[71] In the category 22 Bilbao Masters, Carlsen tied for second with a 2768 PR.[72]


Playing in Group A of the 71st Corus chess tournament, Carlsen tied for fifth with a 2739 PR.[73] In the Linares chess tournament, Carlsen finished third with a 2777 PR.[74] Carlsen tied for second place with Veselin Topalov at the M-Tel Masters (category 21) tournament in Sofia, Bulgaria. He lost to eventual winner Alexei Shirov in their final game, dropping him from first.[75]

Carlsen won the category 21 Nanjing Pearl Spring tournament, 2½ points ahead of second-place finisher Topalov, the world's highest-rated player at the time. He scored an undefeated 8/10, winning every game as white (against Topalov, Wang Yue, Leko, Teimour Radjabov, and Dmitry Jakovenko), and also winning as black against Jakovenko. By rating performance, this was one of the greatest results in history, with a PR of 3002.[76] Chess statistician Jeff Sonas has declared it one of the 20 best tournament performances of all time, and the best chess performance of all time by a teenager.[77]

In the Tal Memorial, played from 5 to 14 November, Carlsen started with seven straight draws, but finished with wins over former FIDE World Champion Ruslan Ponomariov and Peter Leko. This result put Carlsen in shared second place behind former World Champion Vladimir Kramnik and equal with Ivanchuk.[78][79] After the Tal Memorial, Carlsen won the World Blitz Championship, played from 16 to 18 November in Moscow, Russia. His score of 28 wins, 6 draws and 8 losses left him three points ahead of Anand, who finished in second place.[80]

Carlsen entered the London Chess Classic as the top seed in a field including Kramnik, Hikaru Nakamura, Michael Adams, Nigel Short, Ni Hua, Luke McShane and David Howell. He defeated Kramnik in round one and went on to win the tournament with 13/21 (three points were awarded for a win, and one for a draw; using classical scoring he finished with 5/7) and a PR of 2844, one point ahead of Kramnik. This victory propelled him to the top of the FIDE rating list, surpassing Veselin Topalov.[81]

Based on his average ranking from the July 2009 and January 2010 FIDE lists, Carlsen qualified for the Candidates Tournament that would determine the challenger to World Champion Viswanathan Anand in the World Chess Championship 2012. In November 2010, however, Carlsen announced he was withdrawing from the Candidates Tournament. Carlsen described the 2008–12 cycle as "[not] sufficiently modern and fair", and wrote that "Reigning champion privileges, the long (five year) span of the cycle, changes made during the cycle resulting in a new format (Candidates) that no World Champion has had to go through since Kasparov, puzzling ranking criteria as well as the shallow ceaseless match-after-match concept are all less than satisfactory in my opinion."[82]

In early 2009 Carlsen engaged former World Champion Garry Kasparov as a personal trainer.[83] In September their partnership was revealed to the public by Norwegian newspapers.[84][85]

Responding to a question in an interview with Time magazine in December 2009 as to whether he used computers when studying chess, Carlsen explained that he does not use a chess set when studying on his own.[86]


Carlsen won the 72nd Corus chess tournament played 16–31 January with 8½ points. His ninth-round loss to Kramnik ended a streak of 36 rated games undefeated.[87] Carlsen appeared to struggle in the last round against Fabiano Caruana, but saved a draw, leaving him half a point ahead of Kramnik and Shirov.[88]

In March it was announced that Carlsen had split from Kasparov and would no longer use him as a trainer,[89] although this was put into different context by Carlsen himself in an interview with the German magazine Der Spiegel, in which he stated that they would remain in contact and he would continue to attend training sessions with Kasparov.[90] In 2011, Carlsen said: "Thanks to [Kasparov] I began to understand a whole class of positions better. ... Kasparov gave me a great deal of practical help."[91] In 2012, when asked what he learnt from working with Kasparov, Carlsen answered: "Complex positions. That was the most important thing."[92]

Carlsen shared first place alongside Ivanchuk in the Amber blindfold and rapid tournament. Scoring 6½/11 in the blindfold and 8/11 in the rapid, Carlsen accumulated 14½ from a possible 22 points.[93] In May it was revealed that Carlsen had helped Anand prepare for the World Chess Championship 2010 against challenger Veselin Topalov, which Anand won 6½–5½ to retain the title. Carlsen had also helped Anand prepare for the World Chess Championships in 2007 and 2008.[94]

Carlsen played in the Bazna Kings Tournament in Romania on 14–25 June. The tournament was a double round robin involving Wang Yue, Boris Gelfand, Ruslan Ponomariov, Teimour Radjabov, and Liviu-Dieter Nisipeanu. He finished with 7½/10 and a 2918 PR, winning the tournament by two points ahead of Radjabov and Gelfand.[95] Carlsen then played in a rapid tournament 28–30 August at the Arctic Securities Chess Stars tournament in Kristiansund, Norway. The field featured World Champion Viswanathan Anand, female world No. 1 Judit Polgár, and Jon Ludvig Hammer. In the preliminary round robin, Carlsen scored 3½/6 to qualify for the final, second behind Anand.[96] In the final, Carlsen defeated Anand 1½–½ to win the championship.[97] Following this event, Carlsen suffered setbacks in his next two tournaments. In the 39th Chess Olympiad from 19 September to 4 October, he scored 4½/8, losing three games, to Baadur Jobava, Michael Adams, and Sanan Sjugirov; these were his first losses with the black pieces in more than a year.[98] His team, Norway, finished 51st out of 149 teams.[99]

Carlsen's next tournament was the Grand Slam Masters Final on 9–15 October, which he had qualified for automatically by winning three of the previous year's four Grand Slam chess events (2009 Nanjing Pearl Spring, 2010 Corus, 2010 Bazna Kings). Along with Carlsen, the finals consisted of World Champion Anand and the highest two scorers from the preliminary stage held in Shanghai in September: Kramnik and Shirov.[100][101] The average Elo of the participants at the time was 2789, making the Grand Slam Final the strongest chess tournament in history. In the first round, Carlsen lost with black to Kramnik; this was Carlsen's second consecutive loss to Kramnik, and placed his hold on the world No. 1 ranking in serious jeopardy. In his second round, Carlsen lost with the white pieces to Anand; this was his first loss as White since January 2010. Carlsen recovered somewhat in the latter part of the tournament, achieving a win over Shirov, and finishing with 2½/6. The tournament was won by Kramnik with 4/6.[102] Carlsen finished this tournament with a rating of 2802, two points behind Anand at 2804 who temporarily ended Carlsen's reign at world No. 1. These setbacks called into question from some whether Carlsen's activities outside chess, such as modelling for G-Star Raw, were distracting him from performing well at the chessboard.[103] Carlsen said he did not believe there was a direct connection.[104]

Carlsen's next tournament was the Pearl Spring chess tournament on 19–30 October in Nanjing, China, against Anand, Topalov, Vugar Gashimov, Wang Yue, and Étienne Bacrot.[105] This was the only tournament in 2010 to feature Anand, Carlsen and Topalov, at the time the top three players in the world, and was the first tournament in history to feature three players rated at least 2800. With early wins over Bacrot, Wang Yue, and Topalov with white, Carlsen took the early lead, extending his winning streak with white in Nanjing to eight. This streak was halted by a draw to Anand in round seven, but in the penultimate round Carlsen secured first place by defeating Topalov with black. This was his second victory in the tournament over the former world No. 1; his final score of 7/10 (with a PR of 2903) was a full point ahead of runner-up Anand.[106]

In the World Blitz Championship, held in Moscow on 16–18 November, Carlsen attempted to defend his 2009 title. With a score of 23½/38, he finished in third place behind Radjabov and winner Levon Aronian.[107] After the tournament, Carlsen played a private 40-game blitz match against Hikaru Nakamura,[108] winning with a score of 23½–16½.[109]

Carlsen won the London Chess Classic on 8–15 December in a field comprising World Champion Anand, Vladimir Kramnik, Nakamura, and British players Adams, Nigel Short, David Howell, and Luke McShane. Carlsen had a rocky start, losing his games to McShane and Anand in rounds 1 and 3, but winning with white against Adams and Nakamura in rounds 2 and 4. He joined the lead with a win over Howell in round 5, and managed to stay in the lead following a harrowing draw against Kramnik in round 6, before defeating Short in the last round. Since the tournament was played with three points for a win, Carlsen's +4−2=1 score put him ahead of Anand and McShane who scored +2=5 (a more traditional two-points-for-a-win system would have yielded a three-way tie, with Carlsen still on top, having the better tiebreaker due to four games with black—Anand and McShane played only three times with black).[110]


Carlsen competed in the GM-A group of the 73rd Tata Steel Chess Tournament (formerly called the Corus chess tournament) on 14–30 January in Wijk aan Zee in an attempt to defend his title; the field included World Champion Viswanathan Anand, Levon Aronian, former World Champion Vladimir Kramnik, Alexander Grischuk, Hikaru Nakamura, Ruslan Ponomariov, among others. Despite losing games with white against Anish Giri and reigning Russian champion Ian Nepomniachtchi, Carlsen finished with 8/13, including victories over Kramnik and tournament winner Nakamura.[111] Although Carlsen's performance raised his rating from 2814 to 2815, Anand's 8½/13 score elevated his rating to 2817, making him the world No. 1 for the March 2011 FIDE rating list.[112]

The first tournament victory of the year came in the Bazna Kings tournament, a double round robin played in Mediaș, Romania on 11–21 June. Carlsen finished with 6½/10, equal with Sergey Karjakin but with a better tiebreak score. Carlsen won his White games against Nakamura, Nisipeanu, and Ivanchuk and drew the rest of the games.[113]

The Grand Slam Chess Final was held as a double round robin with six players, in São Paulo (25 September – 1 October) and Bilbao (5–11 October). Although Carlsen had a slow start, including a loss against bottom-ranked Francisco Vallejo Pons, he finished +3−1=6, equal with Ivanchuk (whose +4−3=3 finish was equal due to three points for a win). Carlsen then won the blitz tiebreak against Ivanchuk. The other players were Anand, Aronian, Nakamura, and Vallejo Pons.[114]

Another tournament victory was achieved in the Tal Memorial in Moscow 16–25 November as a round robin with ten players. Carlsen won two games, against Gelfand and Nakamura, and drew the rest. Although he finished equal on points with Aronian, he placed ahead since the tiebreak was determined by the number of black games; Carlsen had five black games, while Aronian only had four.[115][116]

In the London Chess Classic, played 3–12 December, Carlsen's streak of tournament victories ended when he finished third, behind Kramnik and Nakamura. Carlsen won three games and drew five. Although he did not win the tournament, Carlsen gained rating points, rising to a new personal record of 2835.[117]


At the 74th Tata Steel Chess Tournament held on 14–29 January in Wijk aan Zee, Carlsen finished in a shared second place with 8/13, behind Aronian, and equal with Radjabov and Caruana. Carlsen defeated Gashimov, Aronian, Gelfand, and Topalov, but lost against Karjakin.[118] At the blitz chess tournament at Tal Memorial, held in Moscow on 7 June, Carlsen shared first place with Morozevich. In the main event (a category 22 ten-player round robin), he won two games and drew seven. He finished in first place, ahead of Radjabov and Caruana.[119]

Carlsen then went on to finish second in the Biel Grandmaster Tournament, with 18 points, just one point behind Wang Hao using the 3–1–0 scoring system. As in the Tal Memorial earlier in 2012, Carlsen managed to finish the tournament without any losses (+4−0=6). He also defeated the winner Wang in both of their individual games. In the exhibition blitz tournament at Biel before the GM tournament, Carlsen was eliminated (+1−2=0) in the first round by Étienne Bacrot. Bacrot deprived Carlsen of a win in the classical tournament by holding him to a draw in the final round. Carlsen would have won the classical tournament on the traditional 1–½–0 scoring system, with 7/10.[120]

The Grand Slam Chess Final was again held as a double round robin with six players, in São Paulo and Bilbao. Carlsen started with a loss against Caruana, but after three wins in the second (Bilbao) round, finished +4−1=5, equal first with Caruana, and ahead of Aronian, Karjakin and Anand. Carlsen won the tournament by winning both tiebreak games against Caruana.[121]

From 24 to 25 November, Carlsen took part in the chess festival "Segunda Gran Fiesta Internacional de Ajedrez" in Mexico City. As part of it, Carlsen took on an online audience (dubbed as "The World") with the white pieces and won. He then took part in the knockout exhibition event "Cuadrangular UNAM". Carlsen first beat Lázaro Bruzón 1½–½, thus qualifying for a final against Judit Polgár (who had in turn beat Manuel León Hoyos 1½–½). Carlsen lost the first game, but won the second one, and in the tiebreak defeated Polgár 2–0.[122][123]

Carlsen won the London Chess Classic in December with five wins (over McShane, Aronian, Gawain Jones, Adams and Judit Polgár) and three draws (against Kramnik, Nakamura and Anand).[124] This win, the third time Carlsen had won the tournament in the past four years, increased his rating from 2848 to a new record of 2861, breaking Kasparov's 13-year record of 2851.[124][125] By rating performance, this was one of the best results in history, with a PR of 2994.[126]


Carlsen played in the 75th Tata Steel Chess Tournament from 11 to 27 January in Wijk aan Zee. In the 13-round tournament, he scored 10 points (+7−0=6), winning clear first 1½ points ahead of second-place finisher Aronian.[127] On 1 February, Danish GM Peter Heine Nielsen joined the team of assistants who helped Carlsen prepare for the Candidates Tournament in March. Before this, Nielsen was on Viswanathan Anand's team.[128]

Carlsen played in the 2013 Candidates Tournament, which took place in London, from 15 March to 1 April. He finished with +5−2=7, and won the tournament on tiebreak over Vladimir Kramnik. As a result, he earned the right to challenge Anand for the World Championship.[129]

In May, Carlsen played in the first edition of Norway Chess tournament. He finished second, scoring 5½/9 (+3−1=5), half a point behind Sergey Karjakin.[130]

Carlsen played in the Tal Memorial from 12 to 23 June. He finished second, with 5½/9, half a point behind Boris Gelfand. Carlsen ended the tournament with +3−1=5, losing to Caruana but beating Anand, Kramnik and Nakamura.[131] Later that month, Carlsen played a four-game friendly rapid match against Borki Predojević, which he won 2½–1½.[132]

In the Sinquefield Cup, held in September, Carlsen finished first, scoring 4½/6 (+3−0=3), a point ahead of Nakamura.[133]

World Chess Championship 2013[edit]

Main article: World Chess Championship 2013

Carlsen faced Anand in the World Chess Championship 2013, at Hyatt Regency in Chennai, India, from 9 to 22 November. Carlsen won the match 6½–3½ by winning games five, six and nine and drawing the remainder. Thus, Carlsen became the new World Chess Champion.[134] Though Carlsen was the challenger, and less experienced than Anand, he handled the pressure with ease. He drew first blood in game 5 by taking advantage of a small mistake made by Anand, and emerged victorious in games 6 and 9, making him the 16th undisputed World Chess Champion.


From 29 January to 4 February, Carlsen played in the Zurich Chess Challenge, winning the blitz event (+2−1=2) and the classical event (+3−0=2). He fared worse in the rapid event (+1−2=2), which counted towards the overall standings, but retained enough of a lead to win the tournament. The other players in the event were Aronian, Nakamura, Caruana, Gelfand and Anand.[135] On 22 March, Carlsen played a game for his club Stavanger in the final team match for promotion to the Norwegian Premier League. His win over Vladimir Georgiev helped his team to a 3½–2½ win over Nordstrand.[136]

Carlsen won the Vugar Gashimov Memorial in Şəmkir, Azerbaijan, played from 20–30 April. He played in the A group along with Caruana, Nakamura, Karjakin, Shakhriyar Mamedyarov and Radjabov. Carlsen started the tournament with 2/2, beating Mamedyarov and Nakamura. He then drew against Karjakin, only to lose two games in a row for the first time in four years, losing to Caruana with black and then with white to Radjabov. In the second half of the tournament, Carlsen scored 4/5, beating Mamedyarov and Nakamura again, and securing the tournament victory by beating Caruana in the final round, finishing with +5−2=3.[137]

On 8 May, Carlsen played an exhibition game at Oslo City against the people of Norway, assisted by a grandmaster panel consisting of Simen Agdestein, Jon Ludvig Hammer, and Leif Erlend Johannessen. Each of the panel members proposed a move and the public could then vote over the proposed moves. Each panel member was allowed three chances to let chess engineHoudini propose a move during the game. Norway's moves were executed by Oddvar Brå who was disguised in a red spandex suit for the occasion. The game was drawn when Carlsen forced a perpetual check.[138]

From 2–13 June, Carlsen played in the second edition of Norway Chess, a ten-man round robin. He placed second with 5½/9, ½ a point behind the winner Karjakin. Other players in the event were Aronian, Caruana, Topalov, Svidler, Kramnik, Grischuk, Giri and Agdestein.[139]

Carlsen won the FIDE World Rapid Championship, which was held in Dubai from 16 to 19 June.[140] He went on to claim the World Blitz Championship two days later, becoming the first player to simultaneously hold the title in all three FIDE rated time controls.[141]

Carlsen played nine games for Norway in the 41st Chess Olympiad, scoring five wins, two draws, and two losses (against Arkadij Naiditsch and Ivan Šarić).[142]

Carlsen placed second to Fabiano Caruana in the Sinquefield Cup, a six-player double round robin held from 27 August to 7 September. Billed as the strongest chess tournament ever held, the remaining 4 players in the event were Levon Aronian, Hikaru Nakamura, Veselin Topalov, and Maxime Vachier-Lagrave. Carlsen lost to Caruana in round 3 and defeated Aronian and Nakamura in rounds 5 and 7, respectively. He finished the tournament with 5½/10 (+2–1=7), three points behind Caruana.[143]

Carlsen at the World Blitz Championship 2009
Carlsen at the 2010 London Chess Classic

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