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Texstudio Bibliography Style Writing

TeXstudio : User manual


1. Configuring TeXstudio

Before using TeXstudio, you should configure the editor and latex related commands via the "Configure TeXstudio" command in the "Options" menu ("Preferences" under Mac OS X). Note that there are two levels of detail. More advanced or less often used options are only visible if you toggle "Show advanced options" in the lower left corner.

1.1 Configuring the editor

You may change the default encoding for new files ("Configure TeXstudio" -> "Editor" -> "Editor Font Encoding") if you don't want utf8 as encoding. Don't forget to set the same encoding in the preamble of your documents. (e.g. \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}, if you use utf-8).
TeXstudio can auto detect utf-8 and latin1 encoded files, but if you use a different encoding in your existing documents you have to specify it in the configuration dialog before opening them. (and then you also have to disable the auto detection)

  • "Folding" toggles the editors code-folding capability (hide sections of the text).
  • The selection box "Indentation mode" lets you select, wether indented lines are followed by lines of the same indentation after pressing Enter or letting TeXstudio do automatic indentation.

1.2 Configuring the latex related commands

LaTeX comes with a number of command line tools to compile and manipulate LaTeX documents. The commands section defines there location and arguments.

The default settings should work with the recent and standard LaTeX distributions, but you could have to modify them ("Configure TeXstudio" -> "Commands"). To change a command, just click on the button at the end of the corresponding line and select the command in the file browser : TeXstudio will automatically adapt the syntax of the command.

You can use a number of special characters / character sequences to address the context of the current document. They are expanded at runtime:

Special CharacterExpands to
filename of the root document for of current document without extension
current line number
followed by further charactersSee the instruction at the bottom of the configuration dialog.
Location of the TeXstudio executable (useful for portable settings)
Location of the settings file (texstudio.ini)

The section Forward/Inverse search gives some example commands for common viewers.

You can always restore the original settings using the revert button to the right.

1.3 Configuring the build system

TeXstudio provides general commands for translating latex.
The default settings use "pdflatex" and the internal pdf viewer. Other commands and viewer can be selected as well as a different bibliography translator.
The "embedded pdf viewer" does not open a new window for viewing the pdf document but presents it directly next to the text in the editor.
A useful alternative might be using the "latexmk" as compile command (if the command is installed on your system), as it handles dependencies with biblatex and index very well.
The advanced options allows finer customization which is in general not necessary.

User commands can be defined here by "adding" them. Each user command has a name with a pattern , e.g. . The command id has to be unique and must not contain spaces. In advanced mode, you can reference it using . The display name will be shown in the tools menu. The user commands can be activated either by short cut (alt+shift+F%n) or by the tools menu (Tools/User).
User commands can either consist of a combination of known commands by selecting them from a list of available commands. This is triggered by clicking the spanner-symbol.
Alternatively a command can be directly selected through the file system.

1.3.1 Advanced configuration of the build system

If you enable the advanced options, you can configure the build system in more detail.

Every txs-command is a list of external programs/latex-commands and other txs-commands to call. An external program can be called with its usual command line, while a txs-command with id "foobar" is called by txs:///foobar.
The commands in the list are separated by |, which is just a separator (i.e. it will not pass the stdout from one program to the stdin of the next).

Note: Use command lists only for the meta and user commands listed at . Do not use then at . The latter should just be single commands (i.e. do not use | there). While it's currently working in some cases, generally we do not guarantee this behavior. It can have surprising side effects such abortion of compilation in some cases. Also, the use of | at may be prohibited completely without further notice in the future.

Each of these txs-command has a unique id, which is shown as tooltip of the displayed name for "normal" commands and in the edit box for user commands. Some important commands are usual: txs:///quick (Build & View, the old quickbuild), txs:///compile (Default compiler), txs:///view (Default viewer), txs:///latex (latex), txs:///pdflatex (pdflatex), txs:///view-pdf (Default Pdf Viewer), txs:///view-pdf-external (External pdf viewer).

For example, in a typical build configuration you might call txs:///quick by pressing F1, which calls txs:///compile, which first calls txs:///pdflatex that calls the actual pdflatey, and then calls txs:///view, which calls txs:///view-pdf, which calls txs:///view-pdf-internal, which displays the pdf.

There is no difference between commands defined as command on the command config page, commands defined as build on the build config page, or commands defined as user commands. They are just separated in the GUI to simplify the interface.
This also means that you can change every command as you want, ignoring its old definition (you could even change its id, when editing the ini file.).

There are however three always defined internal commands, which can only be called and not modified:

txs:///internal-pdf-viewerOpens the internal viewer for the current document
txs:///view-logViews the log file for the current document
txs:///conditionally-recompile-bibliographyChecks if the bib files have been modified, and calls txs:///recompile-bibliography, iff that is the case

The internal pdf viewer also accepts the following options (txs:///internal-pdf-viewer) to modify its behaviour:

--embeddedOpens the viewer embedded
--windowedOpens the viewer windowed (default if no option is given)
--close-(all|windowed|embedded)Close all open viewers, or just viewers of a specific kind
--preserve-existingDoes not change any existing viewers (i.e. always opens a new one)
--preserve-(embedded|windowed)Does not change any existing embedded/windowed viewers
--preserve-duplicatesOnly opens the pdf in the first opened viewer
--(no-)auto-closeDetermines whether the viewer should be closed, when the corresponding tex file is closed (default: auto-close iff embedded)
--(no-)focusDetermines whether the viewer should be focused (default: focus iff windowed)
--(no-)foregroundDetermines whether the viewer should be brought to front (default: foreground)
filenameDetermines the file to open. Like in other commands, file patterns are supported. If this parameter is not provided, TXS uses , i.e. the absolute path of the main file. If the parameter is not an absolute filename, it is searched for in the directory of the main file as well as in

It is also possible to modify the arguments of called subcommands with argument modifiers or by adding a new argument . These modifiers are passed through called lists, so it will always change the arguments of the finally called program, even if the directly called subcommand is just a wrapper around another command:

txs:///foobar --xyzThis will add the xyz option
txs:///foobar[--xyz=123]This will change the value of the xyz option to 123 (i.e. removing any xyz option defined in foobar)
txs:///foobar{--xyz=123}This will remove --xyz=123 from the foobar command line, ignoring xyz options with other values
txs:///foobar{--xyz}This will remove any --xyz option from the foobar command line, regardless of its value
txs:///foobar{}This will remove all options from the foobar command line, leaving only the name of the executable

Finally, there are also hidden options, which can only be changed by modifing the ini-file: Tools/Kind/LaTeX, Tools/Kind/Rerunnable, Tools/Kind/Pdf, Tools/Kind/Stdout, Tools/Kind/Viewer, which give a list of commands that are treated as latex compiler (e.g. show the log afterwards), rerunnable (repeat command call, if there are warnings), pdf generators (e.g. pdflatex), commands that prints to stdout (e.g. bibtex), and viewers (e.g. only open once).

1.3.2 Details of the execution environment

Environment Variables

The environment variables available within the execution are the same as the ones that are available in the context in which TeXstudio was started. In particular this is true for the PATH. On Linux/OS X the PATH may depend on the way you started TeXstudio. Programs started from the GUI may have a different PATH setting than programs started from a shell (because some variables may only defined in the context of a shell (e.g. via ~/.bashrc).

By default, TeXstudio parses environment variables in your commands. The syntax is adapted to the according operating system. A variable MYVAR would be written as on Windows and on Linux and OS X. Windows environment variables are case-insensitive, whereas they are case-sensitive on Linux and OS X. Parsing of environment variables can be deactivated in the Build section of the options.

Working Directory

The working directory is set to the path of root document.

Shell Functionality

All commands specified in the configuration (i.e. Commands and User Commands) are executed directly. There is no shell involved. So most shell functionality does not work.

Output Redirection

TeXstudio provides limited output redirection capabilities. You can only output to the message panel () or suppress output (). The default setting depends on the command. The same targets are allowed for stderr: , . Additionally, you can redirect to the same target as stdout by using .

A typical usecase would be to suppress all output of a command:

Note: Instead of the Linux/Unix notation , you may alternatively use the Windows notation . Because these commands are directly interpreted by TXS, both variants work on all operating systems.

Using other shell functionality

If you need shell functionality, you have to explicitly run a shell. You can either do this directly in the user command:

sh -c "/path/to/testscript foo > bar"

or on Windows:

cmd /C "/path/to/testscript.bat foo > bar"

Alternatively, you can call a wrapper script in the user command

/path/to/wrapperscript foo bar

and do the actual work inside the wrapper script:

#!/bin/sh # I am wrapperscript /path/to/testscript $1 > $2

1.4 Configuring some general issues

This panel allows the setting of some general aspects.

  • The "style" and "color scheme" of TeXstudio can be selected. The modern variant is closer to texmaker 1.9.
  • The symbol list can either appear "tabbed" (old behaviour, tabbed activated) or can have small symbol tabs besides the symbol lists which leaves more room for the symbols.
  • Also the log viewer can appear tabbed which allows faster change between error table, log view and previewer ...
  • The language of the menus can be changed directly to ignore system settings.

1.4.1 Configuring the spell checker

TeXstudio offers an integrated spellchecker which can be used either via a dialog or dirctly while typing. All text outside of LaTeX commands is checked. Additionally, text in options of LaTeX commands is also checked. TeXstudio determines if an option contains natural text and thus should be spell checked by looking up its definition in the completion word lists. For more information on completion word lists see the section on completion and the description of the cwl format.

The spell checker uses the Hunspell dictionary format, which is widely used, e.g. in OpenOffice, LibreOffice and Firefox. The each dictionary consists of two files ( and ). French, British and German dictionaries are distributed with TeXstudio. You can add additional dictionaries yourself by placting them in the dictionary path. A particularly convenient way to get additional dictionaries is downloading a dictionary extension of http://wiki.services.openoffice.org/wiki/Dictionaries or LibreOffice and importing them using the button Import Dictionary in the options.

You can specify one or more search paths for the dictionaries in the options. Multiple paths need to be separated by semicolon. With the paths you can use the special strings and . These are expanded to the path of the executable and the config file () respectively. This expansion is particularly useful if you use a portable version on a USB stick in which the actual location of the program may depend on the computer you are using.

To make life easy TeXstudio lets you choose a preferred language for the spell checker. However, if you frequently work with files in different languages you may want to override the default behavior. This can be done in two ways. First you can specify the language of the file via the language menu in the status line. This setting will be lost as soon as the file is closed. To permanently save the language of the file TeXstudio supports a special "magic comment" . If this comment is present in a file, its language is automatically set when the file is loaded.

Please note: spell checking with Ctrl+Shift+F7 starts at the cursor position and not at the beginning of the document.

If the interactive spell checker is enabled (default), any incorrectly spelled word is underlined with a red wave. Right-click on the word to open a menu with a list of possible corrections. In this context menu you can also add the word to the ignore list. If your dictionary is very large (> 5MB), opening the context menu and showing possible suggestions can take some seconds. If you don't need the suggestion, you can press shift while right clicking and don't have to wait.

Since the internal structure of the dictionaries is complex (e.g. contains rules how to generate a word with in different inflections) it is not possible to simply add words to the dictionary. Instead if a word is missing in the dictionary, you can add it to an ignore list, so that the spell checker won't complain about it. The ignore list is normally saved in the same directory as the dictionary. It's a plain text file with the extension .ign. If this isn't possible (e.g. missing access rights) the list is stored in the user configuration directory.

1.4.2 Configuring the thesaurus

The thesaurus uses OpenOffice.org 2.x databases. Only GPL French and US-English and German databases are distributed with TeXstudio.
Users can download others databases here : http://wiki.services.openoffice.org/wiki/Dictionaries

1.4.3 Configuring the latex syntax checker

The latex syntax checker takes the list of possible completion commands to determine if a command is correct. Furthermore the completion list contains partially additional information to determine in which context a command is valid, whether it is valid only in math-mode or only in tabular-mode.

1.4.4 Configuring the grammar checker

The grammar checker is based on the standard http API of LanguageTool, and requires a separate installation of LanguageTool and java.

Once LanguageTool is installed, you can try it by starting the LanguageTool standalone application, and start TeXstudio afterward. LanguageTool then creates a locally running server at the address http://localhost:8081/ and TeXstudio automatically connects to it at startup. When the connection is established, all typed paragraphs are send to LT and after a short delay the possible grammar errors are highlighted.

To automatically start LanguageTool with TeXstudio, you need to enter the path to LT jar in the grammar page of the config dialog. If the java executable is not in the default PATH, you also need to set the path to it there.

In the advanced config mode, you can also mark certain LT rules as "special" whose matches will then be highlighted in a different/customizable way. This can be useful to do a stylistic analysis, e.g. by creating a own rule in LT highlighting all verbs or all adverbs.

Independent from LanguageTool, TeXstudio also checks for repeated and bad (imprecise/slang) words. The repetition check looks several words behind and marks repetition of short words in the immediate surrounding and repetition of long words up to 10 words before. These distances and lengths can be changed on the advanced grammar config page.

1.5 Configuring the autocompletion

TeXstudio has taken up completion word lists from kile which extended the number of known commands for completion considerably. TeXstudio understands the use of \documentclass and \usepackage in order to select valid lists of commands for completion as well as syntax checking. However TeXstudio allows one to select the additional word lists under "Configure TeXstudio" -> "Editor" -> "". The names of the word lists corresponds to the package for which they are made. The list latex.cwl contains the standard latex commands.
Concerning auto completion, TeXstudio allows one to adapt the behaviour to your liking. Following options are available:

  • Completion enabled: self explanatory
  • Case sensitive: let's you complete e.g. \Large from \la ...
  • in first character: ?
  • Auto Complete Common Prefix: if only one item is in the list or all items in the completion list share common starting characters, the common characters are directly inserted, like pressing the key Tab.
  • Complete selected text when non-word character is pressed: when in completion mode, pressing a non-word character like space, leads to accepting the selected word. This may speed up typing.
  • Enable ToolTip-Help: show tool tips on selected latex commands in the completion list.
  • Use Placeholders: if the completed commands have options which need to be filled out, "place holder" are put at this positions and they can be jumped to by using Ctrl+Right/Ctrl+Left.

If your favorite package is not yet present for completion (and then as well not for syntax check), you can provide a list of your own by placing a file "packagename.cwl" in the config directory. This directory is placed in ~/.config/texstudio under linux and usually "c:\Documents and Settings/User/AppData/Roaming/texstudio" under windows. Basically the file contains a list of valid commands. A Description of the exact format and an example are given in the appendix.

1.6 Configuring shortcuts

Shortcuts can be changed by double clicking on "Current Shortcut" or "Additional Shortcut". A shortcut can be selected from the drop down list or put in as text directly. If a shortcut should be set to default value or removed completely, the items "<default>" or "<none>" at the top of the list can be selected.

1.7 Configuring the Latex/Math-Menu (Advanced option)

The Math/Latex-Menu can be adapted to user likings. For this menu items can be renamed and a new Latex-Code can be placed. The apropriate item can be be directly edited by doubleclicking on them.

1.8 Configuring the Custom Toolbar (Advanced option)

One Custom Toolbar is present in TMX. This toolbar can be filled with actions from the Latex-, Math- and User-Menu. Since many of those item don't have icons, user icons can be loaded as well. This is achieved by applying "load other icon" from the context menu on a item in the custom toolbar list in the configure dialog.

1.9 Configuring SVN support

To supports SVN (subversion) for document versioning. To make use of it, the SVN commandline tools need to be installed. Linux and Mac OSX normally provide already svn tools, for Windows, the installation of "SlikSVN" is recommended.

The complete path to the command "svn" and "svnadmin" need to be adjusted in the aprioriate field of the Commands page in the options. On the SVN page you can can choose the degree of automation (see below) WSVN, see below.

Note: You cannot checkout a repository via TeXstudio. Just use the normal tools for this (either svn checkout on the commmand line or the GUI of your choice). Once you have a working copy, TeXstudio can operate on it.

"Automatically check in after save" allows TeXstudio to perform an svn check in after every save of a document, thus providing a very complete history of the creation of a document. Since text documents are rather small compared to disk spaces, size of the svn database should not be a problem. In addition newly saved files (save as) are automatically added to svn control,provided that the directory is alredy under svn control. If that is not the case, TeXstudio searches in "SVN Directory Search Depth" directory above the current diorectory for a svn controlled directory to which the subdirectories and the TeX-Document will be added. If no appropriate directory is found, a repository is automatically generated in a directory called "./repo" and the document is added. Thus the user does not need to look up the necessary commands to set up a repository. This functionality is only activated when "Auto checkin in" is enabled !

With "User SVN revisions to undo before last save" TeXstudio will perform undo as usually, but if there are no further undoable commands in the internal storage, the document will be changed to the previous version in svn history. Further undo commands allows one to back further to older revisions, whereas a redo goes forward to more recent versions. This is a more interactive approach than choosing svn revisions directly via a menu command, see section 4.3

2. Editing a TeX document

2.1 Usual commands

The standard commands (cut, copy, find...) can be launched via the "Edit" menu and the "Edit" tool bar.

2.2 Creating a new document

There are two different ways to create a new document that are described in the following subsections:

2.2.1 Setting the preamble of a TeX document

To define the preamble of your document, you can use the "Quick start" wizard ("Wizard" menu).

This dialog allows you to set the main features of your document (class, paper size, encoding...).
Note : You can add other options by clicking the "+" buttons. All your settings are recorded.

You can also type your own preamble model in the editor : with the "Copy/paste" or "Save As" commands, you can use it for a new document.

2.2.2 Using Templates to start a new document

For new documents, templates can be used by using the command "File/New from template". A dialogue gives a selection of templates.

You can either create a new editor document from the template or create it as file(s) on disk and open these in the editor. The former option is not available for multi-file templates.

New templates can be created by using the command "File/Make Template" on a opened document which you like to have has a template. Note that this dialog currently does not support the full capabilities of the template system. In particular you cannot supply a preview image or create a multi-file template with it. You'll have to do this manually (see the template format).

User added templates can be edited or deleted by using the context menu in the template selection dialogue. Built-in templates can not be changed.

User templates are saved in the subdirectory of the config directory. The Template Format

In its simplest form, a template is only a .tex file. Multi-file templates can be created by packaging all .tex files in a zip achive. Optionally, meta data can be stored in JSON format in a separate file with the same name, but extension ".json" instead of ".tex" or ".zip". Currently the following entries are supported in the meta data:

{ "Name" : "Book", "Author" : "TXS built-in", "Date" : "04.01.2013", "Version" : "1.1", "Description" : "Default LaTeX class for books using separate files for each chapter.", "License" : "Public Domain", "FilesToOpen" : "./TeX_files/chapter01.tex;main.tex" }

FilesToOpen only has an effect for mutli-file documents. You may add a preview image next to the template file. Again, it must have the same name, but extension ".png".

2.3 Structure of a document

To define a new part (section,subsection...) in your document with TeXstudio, just use this combo box button in the tool bar :

2.4 Browsing your document

The "Structure View" (left panel) lets you quickly reach any part of your document. All you need to do is to click on any item (label, section...) and you will be taken to the beginning of the corresponding area in the editor. The mechanism for jumping to a line does not anymore only consider line numbers but really remembers text lines. Thus adding and removing lines will not lead to jumps to wrong locations.

A grey background shows the present cursor position in the text in the structure view as well. A greenish background denotes sections which are in the appendix.

The "Structure View" is automatically updated as you type. You can also use the "Refresh Structure" (menu "Idefix") command at any moment.

The structure view shows labels, sections, includes and beamer blocks and todos.

There are two kind of todos that will be listed a) todos from a todo-like command, e.g. \todo{} from the package todonotes. b) todo-like comments: This is a comment with a capitalized first word, e.g. "% TODO", "%FIXME", "%ASK".

The structure view also offers a context menu which allows one to copy/cut all text which belongs to a section (including subsection) and paste it before or after a section. Section can be indented/unindented which means that the hierarchy level is changed by one, i.e. \section is changed to \subsection, and all subsections are treated accordingly

For each file, three bookmarks can be used to speed up navigation : just click on a line number to add or remove a bookmark. When you have already defined three bookmarks, you must remove one of them to add a new bookmark. To jump to the line corresponding to a bookmark in the editor, just click on the buttons in the status bar.

2.5 Formatting your text

You can quickly set the format of a part of your text with this tool bar :

Additional option: a selected text can be directly framed by certain environments. Example: while clicking on the button "Bold" after having selected the word "Hello" , you will obtain the code: \textbf{Hello}.
This option is available for all the environments indicated by "[selection]" in the "LaTeX" menu.


The menu "Edit" -> "Text Operations" contains a few methods for changing the capitalization of selected text:

  • To Lowercase
  • To Uppercase
  • To Titlecase (strict)
  • To Titlecase (smart)

Both variants of "To Titlecase" leave small words like a, the, of etc. in lowercase. Additionally, "To Titlecase (smart)" does not convert any words containing capital letters, assuming they are acronymes which require a fixed capitalization (e.g. "TeXstudio").

Escaping reserved characters

If you have text containing reserved TeX characters and want the text to appear literally in your document, you have to escape the reserved charaters to prevent LaTeX from interpreting them. The following functions take care of that (Menu: Idefix)

  • Paste to LaTeX: Takes the text from the clipboard and escapes reserved characters prior to pasting into the editor.
  • Convert to LaTeX: Escapes the reserved characters in the current selection.

For example: "Less than 10% of computer users know the meaning of $PATH." will be converted to "Less than 10\% of computer users know the meaning of \$PATH."

2.6 Spacings

The usual "spacing" commands are available in the "LaTeX" and "Math" menus.

2.7 Inserting a list

The usual list environments code can be insert quickly via the "LaTeX-List" menu.
Note : the shortcut for the \item command is Ctrl+Shift+I.

2.8 Inserting a table

With the "Tabular" wizard ("Wizard" menu), t he LaTeX code for a tabular environment can be quickly inserted :

You can set the main features of your table.
Note : this dialog allows you to type directly the code in the cells.
The corresponding LaTeX code is automatically inserted in the editor.

2.8.1 Manipulating tables

TeXstudio provides some commands to ease handling of tables. The commands are located at LaTeX → Manipulate Table and in the Table toolbar. Please be aware that some unexpected results may arise, if the table constructing commands get too complex. Following commands are offered:

  • Add Row after the current row
  • Remove Row: removes the table row in which the cursor
  • Add Column: add a column in the complete table after current cursor position. If the cursor is positioned at start of line,first column, the column is added as new first column.
  • Remove Column: remove current column
  • Add/Remove \hline: add/remove \hline in all rows following the current row. If already a command \hline is present, no second command is placed.
  • Align Columns: Aligns the column separators (ampersand) by introducing whitespace. The text in the cells is aligned according to the specification in the table header. This helps reading the table source.
  • Remodel the table after a template. This allows one to force uniform table set-up in a document. Some templates are predefined, more can be added though it needs some programming in java script. This command is only present in the menu (math/tables)

TeXstudio also allows block cursors. Press <Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Shift> and drag the cursor with the mouse. The block cursor works like a set of normal cursors. You can copy and paste text as usual. Also you can type in new text, which will be added in every row.

2.9 Inserting a "tabbing" environment

To help you to insert a "tabbing" code, you can use the "Tabbing" wizard ("Wizard" menu) :

2.10 Inserting a picture

To insert a picture in your document, just use the "\includegraphics" command in the "LaTeX" menu. Then, click on the "browser" button in the dialog to select the graphic file.
Note : you can insert a "figure" LaTeX environment ("LaTeX - Environments" menu) before inserting the picture.

2.10.1 Inserting a picture using a "wizard"

Properly inserting figures is a challenge for LaTeX beginners and still quite a bit of text to type for the expert. Therefore TeXstudio offers a wizard for handling graphics insertion code in your document. "Graphics options" defines the optional parameter of . While the most used width/height attributes can be easily set, alternatively you have full control with the user defined setting.
Place the graphic inside a environment if it does not have to be at an exact position in the text. Then LaTeX will determine an optimal position on the page.
By pressing the "Save as default" button the current settings (except file, caption and label) are stored and will hence be used as default when you open the wizard.
The wizard also comes into play when you drag drop an image file to your document or use copy in explorer and paste in TeXstudio. Together with the adjustable default parameters this makes insertion of new pictures very fast. Furthermore, if you start the wizard while the cursor is on picture code, the wizard is used to manipulate the existing picture settings.

2.11 Cross References and notes

This toolbox in the toolbar allows you to insert quickly the label, cite, ref, footnote... code.
Note : the labels used in your documents are displayed in the "Structure View".

Additional option:for the \ref command, a dialog box allows you to select directly the label.

2.12 Inserting math formula

You can toggle in the "in-line math" environment with the "f(x)" button in the toolbar (shortcut : Ctrl+Alt+M) or with the "Math" menu. The shortcut for the "display math" environment is : Alt+Shift+M.
The "Math" toolbar allows you to insert the most currents mathematical forms (frac, sqrt...) like the \left and \right tags.

With the "symbols panels" in the structure view, you can insert the code of 400 mathematical symbols.

You can also define the format of your mathematical text via the "Math" menu.
For the "array" environments, a wizard (like the "Tabular" wizard) is available in the "Wizard" menu. With this wizard, you can select the environment : array, matrix, pmatrix.... The cells can be directly completed.

2.13 Auto Completion

Whenever you press \ followed by a letter, a list of possible LaTex tags is shown where you select the right one. If you write additional letters the list is filtered, so that only the tags starting with the already written text are shown. If the list contains words which all start with the same letter combination, you can press Tab to complete all common letters. If only one element is present in the list, Tab selects this one to do the completion, like Enter. This behaviour is similar to tab completion in bash shells. You can also press Ctrl+Space to open this list whenever you want.
If a tag has different options, a short descriptive text is inserted into your text, telling you the meaning of each option. You can press Ctrl+Left, Ctrl+Right to select all positions.
Furthermore normal text can be completed by starting to type a word and pressing Ctrl+Space. All apropriate words in the current document are used as possible suggestions.
If a enviroment is to be inserted, typing in the beginning of the environment name and pressing Ctrl+Alt+Space gives suggestions for adequate enviroments which are inserted completely with \begin{env}..\end{env}
And finally user tags can be assigned a abbreviation which can also be used with completion. Just type in the start of the abbreviation and start the completion with Ctrl+Space. The abbreviation should show up in the completion list, especially marked with “abbreviation (template)”.
If you change a command by completing a new command, only the command name is substituted. The same is true for environments, where the environment is changed in the \begin- and \end-command.

2.14 Thesaurus

TeXstudio has integrated a simple thesaurus. OpenOffice 2.x databases are used for this. By placing the cursor on a word and activating the thesaurus (Ctrl+Shift+F8 or Edit/Thesaurus), it tries to find synonyms for this word. Please be patient if you start the thesaurus at first time since loading the database just occurs then and can take a few moments.

The first line to the left contains the word, for which a synonym is searched for. The list below gives a list of word classes. The can be chosen to reduce the number of suggestions. The column to the right contains the list of suggested synonyms. A selected word from this list apears in the first line to the right as proposition for replacement of the text. This word can be changed manually. It is also used to do further investigations for words and their synonyms which "start with" or "contain" that word. With "lookup" it can be directly used to look for a synonym for that word.

2.15 Special Commands

Delete word/command/environment

With the shortcut Alt+Del, the word under the cursor is deleted. If it is a command, the command is deleted including opening and closing braces. E.g. "\textbf{text}" leave "text". If it is an environment, the enclosing bengin/end are removed.

Rename environment

If you place the cursor on an environment name or the corresponding begin- or end-command, after a moment a mirror-cursor is activated on the environment name which allows synchronous change of the environment name in the begin- and end-command. So if you want to change a "\begin{tabular}...\end{tabular}" construction to "\begin{tabularx}...\end{tabularx}", place the text cursor on "tabular", wait for a second and then, after the mirror-cursor appears, change "tabular" to "tabularx".

Cut Buffer

If you select something and then start to type in a command and complete it, the selection is put in as first argument. E.g. you have a "text", select it and start typing "\textbf", command which is completed. The resulting text is "\textbf{text}"

3. Compiling a document

3.1 Compiling

The easiest way to compile a document is to use the "Compile" command or the "Build&View" command ("Compile" button - shortcut : F6). You can select the default command via the "Configure TeXstudio" dialog.
(You can also launch each command one by one in the "Tools" menu).
Note : the "Clean" command in the "Tools menu" allows you to erase the files (dvi, toc, aux...) generated by a LaTeX compilation (except the ps and pdf files).

Warning : all your files must have an extension and you can't compile an "untitled" file or a file with a space in his name.

3.2 The log files

With the "Quick Build" command, the log file is automatically displayed in the "Messages / Log file" pannel. While clicking on a number in the "Line" column, the cursor is placed on the corresponding line in the editor and the error is displayed.
Remark : a summary of the latex errors and warnings is displayed before the full log file.

The "Next Latex Error"and "Previous LaTeX Error" commands allow to get to the errors detected during compilation.

Lines with errors, warnings, bad boxes will be highlighted with red, yellow or blue background and you can jump between them using Ctrl+Up/Down. (Ctrl+Shift for errors only, Ctrl+Alt for warnings only, Alt+Shift for bad boxes only)
A tool tip will show more details of the mistake if you jump to a line (it is also shown if you move the mouse over the mark left from the line numbers).

4. Other features

4.1 About documents separated in several files

LaTeX documents may be spread over multiple files. TeXstudio automatically understands parent/child relations of loaded documents. This includes the detection of the root document and knowledge on defined labels and commands.

4.1.1 Root Document

The root document is the top-most file in a multi-file document. For a single-file document this is the file itself. By default, all calls to LaTeX will be performed on the root document.

TeXstudio automatically detects the root document. If that does not work, you can place a magic comment at the top of your included files.

As a last resort, you may set an explicit root document via . This setting takes absolute precence. All the commands of the "Tools" menu will be called on this document (to be more precise the build system will expland the placeholder to the root document), no matter which document is active in the editor. Additionally, labels and usercommands which are defined in any open document, can be used for completion in any open document.

In earlier versions, the explicit root document was somewhat misleadingly called master document.

4.1.2 Loaded Documents

Obviously, TeXstudio can only use information (defined commands, labels, document hirachy, etc.) that it is aware of. We use the information in all opened files, but if a label in a multi-file document is defined in a not-loaded files, TeXstudio does not know about it and will mark it as missing in references. To remedy this, you can just open the corresponding file as well.

More recent versions of TeXstudio have an advanced option . It's disabled by default for performance reasons with older systems. When you enable this option, TeXstudio will automatically load and parse all files of multi-file-documents as soon as one of the files is opened. You may have to set the magic comment if you do not have the root document open. With this option enabled TeXstudio will allways know about your complete document and act accordingly when performing highlighting or completion.

4.2 Syntax Check

The latex syntax checker takes the list of possible completion commands to determine if a command is correct. The completion list contains partially additional information to determine in which context a command is valid, whether it is valid only in math-mode or only in tabular-mode.
Furthermore the correctness of tabulars is checked in a little more detail. The number of columns is analyzed and checked in the subsequent rows. If more or less columns are given in a row, a warning maker is shown.

4.3 Bibliography

For the "bib" files , the "Bibliography" menu enables you to directly insert the entries corresponding to the standard types of document.
Note: the optional fields can be automatically deleted with the "Clean" command of the "Bibliography" menu.

4.4 SVN Support

Apart from the supported svn features already describes in section 1.8, TeXstudio supports two more commands.

"File/chekin" performs an explicit save and check in, with a input dialog which asks for an checkin in message which is stored in the svn history.

"File/Show old Revisions" pops up a dialog, which shows all alvailable revisions. A selection of an older revision leads to instatanious change of the current document to that older revision. You can can select and copy old parts to transfer them to the most recent version of your document, by copying the parts and then going back to most recent version. If you start editing that document directly, the dialog is closed and the present text is your new most recent version though yet unsaved.

4.5 Personal macros

TeXstudio allows you to insert your own macros (shortcuts : Shift+F1...Shift+F10). These macros are defined with the "Macros - Edit Macros" menu. Macros can consist of simple text which is directly placed into txs. It can also be an "environment" which are automatically extended by begin/end and it can be a java script. The needed functionality can be selected by checkbox.
The "abbreviation" is a pseudo-command for the latex completer. If the pseudo-command is completed, the macro will be inserted instead. Note that the pseudo-command needs to start with a backslash ("\").
"Trigger" is a regular expression which triggers the inclusion of the macro: When the last written characters match this expression, they are removed and the macro is inserted/executed. (see below for more details).

4.5.1 Text macros

Apart from normal text, some special codes are recognized and replaced on insertion.
  • If you write %| somewhere the cursor will be placed at that place in the inserted text. (A second %| will select everything between them).
  • Write %<something%> to mark it as placeholder which is highlighted in the text and can be selected by Ctrl+Left/Right.
    Additional properties of the placeholder can be set after a %:, e.g. %<something%:persistent,id:123,mirror%>. The available properties are:
    • select: The placeholder will be selected (similar to %|)
    • multiline: The placeholder is used for multiline text. If a macro insertion replaces an existing text, the replaced text is again inserted into a placeholder in the macro. If the original text spans more than one line, it will be inserted into a placeholder with the multiline property. Otherwise in a placeholder with the select-property.
    • persistent: The placeholder is not automatically removed, when its text is changed in the editor
    • mirror: The placeholder is a mirror of another placeholder in the macro and thus will always have the same content as the original placeholder. You should set an id, so it knows which placeholders are connected
    • id:123: The id of the placeholder
    • columnShift:-12: The placeholder is not placed where the %< markers are, but some columns to the left of it
    • translatable: The text of the placeholder should be added to translations (only applicable to macros that are known during the compilation of texstudio).
  • The option %(filefilter%) will be replaced by a filename which is asked for in a file dialog. The file filter is the standard Qt-Filefilterformat. For example "Images (*.png *.xpm *.jpg);;Text files (*.txt);;XML files (*.xml)", see also Qt-Doc

4.5.2 Environment macros

The text will be used as environment-name, thus "%environment" will be inserted as:
\begin{environment }

\end{environment }

Note: texstudio needs that the env-name starts with "%", though that character is not placed on insertion.

4.5.3 Javascript macros

Instead of using code snippets, you can also make use of javascript. To do so, put "%SCRIPT" in the first line. The following code will be interpreted as javascript. The language is based on ECMAScript. To access the document these objects are introduced:
  • "editor" allows some top level operations like searching/save/load. in the current document
  • "cursor" gives access to cursor operations like moving, inserting and deleting texts.
  • "fileChooser" gives access to the filechooser dialog, a very simple file selection dialog
  • "app" to access application wide things like the clipboard or the menus

The following table gives an overview on the possible commands.

Global scope
alert(str), information(str), warning(str) or critical(str) shows str in a messagebox with a certain icon
confirm(str) or confirmWarning(str) shows str as a yes/no question in a messagebox
debug(str) prints str to stdout
writeFile(name, value) Writes value to file name (requires write privileges)
readFile(name) Reads the entire file name (requires read privileges)
system(cmd, workingDirectory="") Calls cmd and returns a ProcessX object which has this methodes:
  • waitForFinished: Wait until the process is finished
  • readAllStandardOutputStr: Returns the stdout
  • readAllStandardErrorStr: Returns the stderr
  • exitCode: The exit code
  • exitStatus: The qt exit status
  • terminate or kill: Stops the process
If workingDirectory is not set, the working directory will be inherited from the TeXstudio executable.
setGlobal(name, value) Sets a temporary, global variable
getGlobal(name) Reads a global variable
hasGlobal(name) Checks for the existence of a global variable
setPersistent(name, value) Sets a global configuration variable. (can change the values of the ini file, requires write privileges)
getPersistent(name) Reads a global configuration variable. (can read all values of the ini file, requires read privileges)
hasPersistent(name) Checks if a global configuration variable exists. (requires read privileges)
hasReadPrivileges() Checks if the script has read privileges
hasWritePrivileges() Checks if the script has write privileges
registerAsBackgroundScript([id]) Allows the script to run in the background (necessary iff the script should handle events/signals)
triggerMatches Matches of the regular trigger expression, if the script was called by an editor trigger.
triggerId Numeric id of the trigger, if the script was called by an event trigger.
include(script) Includes another script. Can be a filename or the name of a macro.
pdfs List of all open, internal pdf viewers .
Editor object
editor.search(searchFor, [options], [scope], [callback]) Searchs something in the editor.
  • searchFor is the text which is searched. It can be either a string (e.g. "..") or a regexp (e.g. /[.]{2}/).
  • options is a string and a combination of "i", "g", "w" to specify a case-insensitive search, a global search (continue after the first match) or a whole-word-only search.
  • scope is a cursor constraining the search scope (see editor.document().cursor).
  • callback is a function which is called for every match. A cursor describing the position of the match is passed as first argument.
All arguments except searchFor are optional, and the order may be changed (which may not be future compatible). The function returns the number of found matches.
editor.replace(searchFor, [options], [scope], [replaceWith]) This function searches and replaces something in the editor. It behaves like editor.search apart from the replaceWith argument which can be a simple string or a callback function. If it is a function the return value of replaceWith is used to replace the match described by the cursor passed to replaceWith.
editor.replaceSelectedText(newText, [options]) This function replaces the current selections with newText or inserts newText, if nothing is selected.
If newText is a function, it will be called with the selected text and corresponding cursor, and the return value will be the newText.
It is recommended to use this function for all text replacements/insertions, since it is the easiest way to handle multiple cursors/block selections correctly. Though it is only available in txs >= 2.8.5.

Options is an object that can have the following properties:
  • only replaces; does not insert anything if the selection is empty
  • only inserts at the cursor position; does not change non empty selected text
  • appends newText to the current selection, does not remove the old text
  • prepends newText to the current selection, does not remove the old text
  • Treats newText as normal macro text, e.g. inserting %< %> placeholders

Appends "world" to the current selections.
Converts the current selection to uppercase.
editor.insertSnippet(text); Inserts a text snippet into the editor. For a list of extended features and syntax see Text Macros.
editor.undo();undo last command in editor
editor.redo(); redo last command in editor
editor.cut(); cut selection to clipboard
editor.copy(); copy selection to clipboard
editor.paste(); paste clipboard contents
editor.selectAll(); select all
editor.selectNothing(); select nothing (clear selections)
editor.cutBuffer If a macro was triggered by a key press and there was a selection previous to the key press, the content of the selection is stored in the cutBuffer. The selection and its content is removed before the macro is entered.
editor.find(); activate "find panel"
editor.find(QString text, bool highlight, bool regex, bool word=false, bool caseSensitive=false); activate "find panel" with predefined values
editor.find(QString text, bool highlight, bool regex, bool word, bool caseSensitive, bool fromCursor, bool selection); activate "find panel" with predefined values
editor.findNext(); find next
editor.replacePanel(); replace (if find panel open and something is selected)
editor.gotoLine(); activate "goto line panel"
editor.indentSelection(); indent selection
editor.unindentSelection(); unindent selection
editor.commentSelection(); comment selection
editor.uncommentSelection(); uncomment selection
editor.clearPlaceHolders(); clear place holders
editor.nextPlaceHolder(); jump to next place holder
editor.previousPlaceHolder() jump to previous place holder
editor.setPlaceHolder(int i, bool selectCursors=true); set Placeholder
editor.setFileName(f); set filename to f
editor.write(str) inserts str at the current cursors position (if there are cursor mirrors, str will be inserted by all of them)
editor.insertText(str) inserts str at the current cursor position (cursor mirrors are ignored, so it is preferable to use replaceSelectedText or write instead)
editor.setText(text) replace the whole text of the current document by text
editor.text() return the text of the complete document
editor.text(int line) return text of line
Document object
editor.document().lineCount() Returns the number of lines
editor.document().visualLineCount() Returns the number of visual lines (counting wrapped lines)
editor.document().cursor(line, [column = 0], [lineTo = -1], [columnTo = length of lineTo]) Returns a cursor object. If lineTo is given the cursor has a selection from line:column to lineTo:columnTo, otherwise not.
editor.document().text([removeTrailing = false], [preserveIndent = true]) Returns the complete text of the document
editor.document().textLines() Returns an array of all text lines
editor.document().lineEndingString() Returns a string containing the ending of a line (\n or \n\r)
editor.document().canUndo() Returns true if undo is possible
editor.document().canRedo() Returns true if redo is possible
editor.document().expand(lineNr) Expands the line
editor.document().collapse(lineNr) Collapse the line
editor.document().expandParents(lineNr) Expand all parents of the line until it is visible
editor.document().foldBlockAt(bool unFold, lineNr); Collapses or expands the first block before lineNr
editor.document().getMasterDocument(); Returns the open document which directly includes this document
Deprecated: Use getRootDocument() instead
editor.document().getRootDocument(); Returns the open document which indireclty includes this document and is not itself included by any other document
editor.document().getMagicComment(name); Returns the content of a magic comment, if it exists
editor.document().updateMagicComment(name, value, [create = false]); Changes a magic comment
editor.document().labelItems/refItems/bibItems Returns the ids of all labels/references or included bibliography files.
editor.document().getLastEnvName(lineNr) Returns the name of the current enviroment (at the end of the line).
Document Manager object
documentManager.currentDocument Current document (usually the same as editor.document(), unless the script is running in background mode)
documents.masterDocument Master document
[documentManager.]documents Array of all open documents
documentManager.findDocument(fileName) Returns the open document with a certain file name
documentManager.singleMode() Returns if there is no explicit master document
Deprecated: Use getRootDocumentForDoc(document) instead
documentManager.getRootDocumentForDoc(document) Returns the open document (possibly indirectly) including the given document
documentManager.findFileFromBibId(id) Returns the file name of the bib file containing an entry with the given id
Cursor object
cursor.atEnd() returns whether the cursor is at the end of the document
cursor.atStart() returns whether the cursor is at the start of the document
cursor.atBlockEnd() returns whether the cursor is at the end of a block
cursor.atBlockStart() returns whether the cursor is at the start of a block
cursor.atLineEnd() returns whether the cursor is at the end of a line
cursor.atLineStart() returns whether the cursor is at the start of a line
cursor.hasSelection() return whether the cursor has a selection
cursor.lineNumber() returns the line number of the cursor
cursor.columnNumber() returns the column of the cursor
cursor.anchorLineNumber() returns the line number of the anchor.
cursor.anchorColumnNumber() returns the column of the anchor.
cursor.shift(int offset) Shift cursor position (text column) by a number of columns (characters)
cursor.setPosition(int pos, MoveMode m = MoveAnchor) set the cursor position after pos-characters counted from document start (very slow)
cursor.movePosition(int offset, MoveOperation op = NextCharacter, MoveMode m = MoveAnchor); move cursor offset times. MoveOperations may be:
  • cursorEnums.NoMove
  • cursorEnums.Up
  • cursorEnums.Down
  • cursorEnums.Left
  • cursorEnums.PreviousCharacter = Left
  • cursorEnums.Right
  • cursorEnums.NextCharacter = Right
  • cursorEnums.Start
  • cursorEnums.StartOfLine
  • cursorEnums.StartOfBlock = StartOfLine
  • cursorEnums.StartOfWord
  • cursorEnums.StartOfWordOrCommand
  • cursorEnums.PreviousBlock
  • cursorEnums.PreviousLine = PreviousBlock
  • cursorEnums.PreviousWord
  • cursorEnums.WordLeft
  • cursorEnums.WordRight
  • cursorEnums.End
  • cursorEnums.EndOfLine
  • cursorEnums.EndOfBlock = EndOfLine
  • cursorEnums.EndOfWord
  • cursorEnums.EndOfWordOrCommand
  • cursorEnums.NextWord
  • cursorEnums.NextBlock
  • cursorEnums.NextLine = NextBlock
Options for MoveMode are:
  • cursorEnums.MoveAnchor
  • cursorEnums.KeepAnchor
  • cursorEnums.ThroughWrap
cursor.moveTo(int line, int column); move cursor to line and column
cursor.eraseLine(); remove current line
cursor.insertLine(bool keepAnchor = false); insert empty line
cursor.insertText(text, bool keepAnchor = false) insert text text at cursor (this function will ignore indentations and mirrors, see editor.write and editor.insertText)
cursor.selectedText() return the selected text
cursor.clearSelection(); clears selection
cursor.removeSelectedText(); removes selected text
cursor.replaceSelectedText(text); replace selected text with text
cursor.deleteChar(); removes char right to the cursor
cursor.deletePreviousChar(); removes char left to the cursor
cursor.beginEditBlock(); begins a new edit block. All cursor operations encapsulated in an edit block are undone/redone at once.
cursor.endEditBlock(); ends an edit block
App object
app.getVersion()Current version (0xMMmm00)
app.clipboardProperty to read/write to the clipboard
app.getCurrentFileName()File name of currently edited file
app.getAbsoluteFilePath(rel, ext = "")Converts a relative filename to an absolute one
app.load(file)Loads an file
app.fileOpen/Save/Close/.../editUndo/.../QuickBuild/... All menu commands (i.e. all slots in the texmaker.h file). You can view a list of all currently existing slots on the "menu" page of the config dialog.
app.newManagedMenu([parent menu,] id, caption)Creates a new menu and returns it
app.getManagedMenu(id)Returns a QMenu with a certain id
app.newManagedAction(menu, id, caption)Creates a new action and returns it
  • menu: Parent menu
  • id: Id of the new action (the final, unique id will be menu id/action id)
  • caption: Visible text
qt signal/slot documentation).
app.getManagedAction([id])Returns an QAction with a certain id (all ids have the form main/menu1/menu2/.../menuN/action, with usually one menu, e.g. "main/edit/undo", see texmaker.cpp)
app.createUI(file, [parent])Loads a certain ui file and creates a QWidget* from it
app.createUIFromString(string, [parent])Creates a QWidget* described in the string
app.slowOperationStarted()/slowOperationEnded()Notify txs about the start/end of a slow operation to temporary disable the endless loop detection.
app.simulateKeyPress(shortcut)Trigger a KeyPress event for the given shortcut, e.g. . Note: this is mainly intended for shortcuts and navigation. Currently, it does not support all functions of a KeyPress event. In particular, you cannot type any text.
UniversalInputDialog class
new UniversalInputDialog()Creates a new dialog
dialog.add(defaultValue, [description, [id]])Adds a new variable with the given default value, optional description and id to the dialog; and returns the corresponding qt component.
A string default value becomes a QLineEdit, a number a QSpinBox and an array a QComboBox.
dialog.get(nr/id)Returns the current value of the nr-th added variable or the variable with a certain id.
dialog.getAll()Returns the value of all variables as combined numerical/associative array. You can use returnvalue[i] to get the i-th variable, and returnvalue.id to get the variable with a certain id.
dialog.exec()Displays the dialog. Returns 1 if the user accepted the dialog, 0 if it was canceled.
dialog.show()Displays the dialog asynchronously.
UniversalInputDialog([[defaultValue_0, description_0, id_0], [defaultValue_1, description_1, id_1], ...])Short form: Creates a new dialog, adds all variables of the array and call exec on it.
FileChooser object
fileChooser.exec() show dialog and wait until it is closed again
fileChooser.setDir(dir) set directory in the dialog to dir
fileChooser.setFilter(filter) set file filter to filter, using the QT-format, see above
fileChooser.fileName() return selected filename (after exec)

Some examples:

  • Copy current file name to clipboard: %SCRIPT app.clipboard = editor.fileName();
  • Execution of editor text: %SCRIPT eval(editor.text());
  • Show all properties of an object: %SCRIPT function write_properties(obj) { app.fileNew(); newEditor = documentManager.currentDocument.editorView.editor; //access the newly created document newEditor.setText(Object.getOwnPropertyNames(obj).join("\n")); //print the properties } obj = editor; //object to show (e.g. the current editor) write_properties(obj)
  • Additional action in the edit menu
  • Asynchronous dialog: The dialog is described in an ui file which can be created with the Qt Designer.

More examples can be found in the Wiki.

4.5.4 Triggers Regular Expressions

In its simplest form, the trigger is simply a text, which is replaced by the macro. E.g. trigger="eg" macro="example given", "eg" in "the leg" is replaced on pressing "g" by "example given"
As the trigger is a regular expression, more elaborate triggers can be created. TXS makes use of look-behind searching: "(?<=\s)%" is used to replace a "%" if the previous character is a space. More help on regular expressions can be found on the internet.

You can access the matched expression in the script via the global variable . is an array. It's zero-th component is the match to the complete regexp. The following elements are matches to groups (if groups are defined).


Trigger: #([a-z]) Typed text: #a triggerMatches[0] == '#a' triggerMatches[1] == 'a'

Note: Triggers are inactive while the completer is active. For example you cannot trigger on if the completer is open suggesting to complete . Limitation of Scope

To the scope in which a macro will be active, you can prepend an expression of the pattern .

Scope Limiting ExpressionMeaning
The macro is only active if the highlighting of the document matches the given language.
Restrict the macro to certain highlighted environments. The possible values correspond to the list on the syntax highlighting config page.
Similar to , but the macro is deactivated in the given environments.

You may combine and expressions. However, combing and does not make sense logically and has undefined behavior.

Note that you still need the regular expression of the trigger itself. Here's a full complex example: . This trigger responds to typing "FIXME", but only in comments and todo-notes of latex documents. Event Triggers

Additionally the following special trigger terms (without parentheses) can be used to execute the script when the corresponding event occurs:

Special TriggerExecuted on Event
?txs-startTeXstudio is started.
?new-fileA new file is created
?new-from-templateA new file is created from a template
?load-fileA file is loaded
?load-this-fileThe file containing the macro is loaded (only makes sense, if the script is defined as magic comment)
?save-fileA file is saved
?close-fileA file is closed
?master-changedA document is un/defined as master document
?after-typesetA latex-like command has ended
?after-command-runA command run has ended (e.g. a compile command that calls latex twice and opens the viewer, will trigger this event once, but after-typeset twice)

Multiple of these special triggers can be combined by | symbols.

4.6 Pstricks support

The main pstricks commands can be inserted with the "Pstricks" panel in the "Structure View".

4.7 Metapost support

The metapost keywords can be inserted with the "Metapost" panel in the "Structure View" and the "mpost" command can be launched via the "Tools" menu.

4.8 The "Convert to Html" command

This command (from the "Tools" menu ) produces a set of html pages from a LaTeX source file with one image for each html page. Each page in the slide presentation corresponds to one of the postscript pages you would obtain running LaTeX.
The command also produces an index page corresponding to the table of contents you would obtain with LaTeX. Each item of the index page includes a link to the corresponding html page.

You can create links in the html pages by using the \ttwplink{}{} command in the tex file.
Synopsis :
\ttwplink{http://www.mylink.com}{my text} (external link)
\ttwplink{page3.html}{my text} (internal link)
\ttwplink{name_of_a_label}{my text} (internal link)
Warning : You can't use this command with the hyperref package (and some others packages). This command can only be used with the "Convert to html" tool.

4.9 "Forward/Inverse search" with TeXstudio

Integrated pdf-viewer

TeXstudio provides an integarted pdf-viewer which offers forward- and inverse-search. Make sure that synctex is activated in the pdflatex command (option -synctex=1 needs to be added), though TeXstudio will ask you if it can correct the command itself if it is not set correctly.
Forward search is automatically done every time the pdf-viewer is opened. TeXstudio will jump to the position where your cursor is currently positioned. Additionally you can CTRL+left click on a word in the text editor to jump to the pdf or use the context menu and select "Go To PDF".
Inverse can be activated by clicking in the pdf with CTRL+left mouse button or by slecting "jump to source" in the context menu, which is activated with a right mouse button click. Furthermore it is possible to enable "Scrolling follows Cursor" in pdf-viewer/configure. This will keep the pdf-viewer position synchronous to your cursor oposition in the editor. Likewise "Cursor follows Scrolling" keeps the editor position synchronous to pdf-viewer position.

General Set-up for external viewers

Some (dvi) viewers can jump to (and visually highlight) a position in the DVI file that corresponds to a certain line number in the (La)TeX source file.
To enable this forward search, you can enter the command line of the corresponding viewer either as command line for an user tool in the User menu (User/User Commands/Edit...) or in the viewer command line in the config dialog ("Options/Configure TeXstudio" -> "Commands"). When the viewer is launched, the @-placeholder will be replaced by the current line number and ?c:ame by the complete absolute filename of the current file.

On Windows, you can execute DDE commands by inserting a command of the form: dde:///service/control/[commands...] or (since TeXstudio 1.9.9) also dde:///programpath:service/control/[commands...] to start the program if necessary.

Below you can find a list of commands for some common viewers. Of course, you have to replace (your program path) with the path of the program on your computer, if you want to use a command.


Launch Sumatra from TeXstudio and configure Sumatra for inverse search: "(your sumatra path)" -reuse-instance -inverse-search "\"(your TeXstudio path)\" \"%%f\" -line %%l" "?am.pdf"

Jump to a line in a running Sumatra (Windows only): dde:///SUMATRA/control/[ForwardSearch("?am.pdf","?c:am.tex",@,0,0,1)]

Launch Sumatra if it is not running and jump to a line in it (Windows only): dde:///(your sumatra path):SUMATRA/control/[ForwardSearch("?am.pdf","?c:am.tex",@,0,0,1)]

Launch TeXstudio from Sumatra: "(your TeXstudio path)" "%f" -line %l

A possible value for (your Sumatra path) is C:/Program Files/SumatraPDF/SumatraPDF.exe

Foxit Reader

Launch Foxit Reader from TeXstudio: "(your Reader path)" "?am.pdf"

Acrobat Reader

Launch Acrobat Reader from TeXstudio: "(your Reader path)" "?am.pdf"

Naviation and closing are achieved via DDE commands. Since version 10 of the adobe products the DDE service name contains a letter for the Product and the version number.

ProductService name
Adobe Reader 9acroview
Adobe Acrobat 9acroview
Adobe Reader 10acroviewR10
Adobe Acrobat 10acroviewA10
Adobe Reader 11acroviewR11
Adobe Acrobat 11acroviewA11
Adobe Reader DCacroviewR15
Adobe Acrobat DCacroviewA15

The following example is for Adobe Reader DC:
Jump to a position in a running Adobe Reader (Windows only): dde:///acroviewR15/control/[DocOpen("?am.pdf")][FileOpen("?am.pdf")][DocGotoNameDest("?am.pdf","jump-position")]         jump-position can be defined with the hyperref package
If you have the problem that Adobe Reader does not open, you have to add the program path like this: dde:///"C:\Program Files (x86)\Adobe\Acrobat Reader DC\Reader\AcroRd32.exe":acroviewR15/control/[DocOpen("?am.pdf")][FileOpen("?am.pdf")][DocGotoNameDest("?am.pdf","jump-position")]

Close the document in a running Adobe Reader (Windows only): dde:///acroviewR15/control/[DocOpen("?am.pdf")][FileOpen("?am.pdf")][DocClose("?am.pdf")]

Note: Since Adobe Reader blocks writing to PDFs which are open in the Reader, you have to close the PDF before recompiling. You can define a User Command for the above DDE-command and call it at the beginning of your build chain. This ensures that the file will be closed and thus is writable when compiling.

Yap (Yet Another Previewer)

Launch Yap from TeXstudio: "(your Yap path)" -1 -s @?c:m.tex %.dvi

Launch TeXstudio from Yap: "(your TeXstudio path)" "%f" -line %l

A possible value for (your Yap path) is C:\Program Files\MiKTeX 2.7\miktex\bin\yap.exe


Launch xdvi from TeXstudio: xdvi %.dvi -sourceposition @:?c:m.tex

Launch xdvi from TeXstudio and enable inverse search: xdvi -editor "texstudio %f -line" %.dvi -sourceposition @:%.tex


Launch kdvi from TeXstudio: kdvi "file:%.dvi#src:@ ?c:m.tex"


Launch okular from TeXstudio: okular --unique %.dvi#src:@?c:m.tex

Launch TeXstudio from Okular: texstudio %f -line %l


Launch Skim from TeXstudio: (your Skim path)/Contents/SharedSupport/displayline @ ?am.pdf ?c:ame

Launch TeXstudio from skim: Command: /applications/texstudio.app/contents/macos/texstudio with arguments: "%file" -line %line

A possible value for (your Skim path) is /Applications/Skim.app


Launch qpdfview from TeXstudio: qpdfview --unique ?am.pdf#src:?c:am.tex:@:0 2> /dev/null

Launch TeXstudio from qpdfview: texstudio "%1" -line %2

4.10 Advanced header usage

So called "magic comments" are a way to adapt the options of the editor on a per-document level. The concept was originally introduced in TeXshop and has been adopted in a number of editors since. TeXstudio supports the following magic comments:

4.11 Synopsis of the TeXstudio command

use the specified settings directory.
deprecated:use instead.
defines the document as explicit root document (formerly called master document).
deprecated:use instead.
position the cursor at line LINE and column COL, e.g. "--line 2:5" will jump to column 5 in line 2.
pushes a bibtex key to TeXstudio, that will be inserted at the cursor position. This is intended as an interface for external bibliography managers to push citations to TeXstudio. You may either pass an (also custom) command like \mycite{key} or just the key. In the latter case, it is expanded to \cite{key}. Also comma separated keylists are supported. TeXstudio recognizes, if the cursor is already within a citation macro. If so, only the key is inserted at an appropriate position, otherwise the full citation command is inserted.
start a new instance, even if TXS is already running. This allows using of multiple instances.
run as a standalone pdf viewer without an editor
display a certain page in the pdf viewer
do not load/save the session at startup/close

Additional options only available in debug versions of texstudio:

Prevent running any tests.
Force running the most common tests.
Force running all tests.
Note: The most common tests are run automatically, if there were changes to the executable (i.e. TXS has been compiled since the last run). Furthermore all tests are run once a week.

4.12 Keyboard shortcuts

The keyboard shortcuts can be modified at Options -> Shortcuts.

The following list is a rough overview of the defaults keyboard shortcuts. Depending on the operating system, there may be some deviations to adapt for OS-specific shortcut conventions.

  • "File" menu :
    • New : Ctrl+N
    • Open : Ctrl+O
    • Save : Ctrl+S
    • Save as: Ctrl+Alt+S
    • Save all: Ctrl+Shift+Alt+S
    • Close : Ctrl+W
    • Print Source Code : Ctrl+P
    • Exit : Ctrl+Q
  • "Edit" menu :
    • Undo : Ctrl+Z
    • Redo : Ctrl+Y
    • Copy : Ctrl+C
    • Cut : Ctrl+X
    • Paste : Ctrl+V
    • Select All : Ctrl+A
    • Expand Selection to Word : Ctrl+D
    • Expand Selection to Line : Ctrl+L
    • Delete Line : Ctrl+K
    • Delete to End of Line : Alt+K
    • Find : Ctrl+F
    • Find next : F3 / Ctrl+G
    • Find prev : Shift+F3 / Ctrl+Shift+G
    • Replace : CTrl+R
    • Go to line : Ctrl+G
    • Go to previous change: Ctrl+H
    • Go to to next change: Ctrl+Shift+H
    • Go to Bookmark 0..9: Ctrl+0..9
    • Set Bookmark 0..9: Ctrl+Shift+0..9
    • Set Unnamed Bookmark: Ctrl+Shift+B
    • Next Marker: Ctrl+Down
    • Previous Marker: Ctrl+Up
    • Go Back : Alt+Left
    • Go Forward : Alt+Right
    • Insert Unicode Character : Ctrl+Alt+U
  • "Idefix" menu :
    • Erase Word/Cmd/Env: Alt+Del
    • Paste as LaTeX: Ctrl+Shift+V
    • Show preview : Alt+P
    • Comment : Ctrl+T
    • Uncomment : Ctrl+U
    • Next Latex Error: Ctrl+Shift+Down
    • Previous Latex Error: Ctrl+Shift+Up
    • Next Latex Bad Box: Shift+Alt+Down
    • Previous Latex Bad Box: Shift+Alt+Up
    • Go to definition: Ctrl+Alt+F
    • Normal Completion: Ctrl+Space
    • \begin Completion: Ctrl+Alt+Space
    • Normal Text Completion: Alt+Shift+Space
    • Close Last Open Environment: Alt+Return
    • Remove Placeholders: Ctrl+Shift+K
  • "Tools" menu :
    • Build & View : F5
    • Compile : F6
    • View : F7
    • Bibliography : F8
    • Glossary : F9
    • Check spelling : Ctrl+:
    • Thesaurus : Ctrl+Shift+F8
  • "LaTeX" menu :
    • item : Ctrl+Shift+I
    • Italic : Ctrl+I
    • Slanted : Ctrl+Shift+S
    • Bold : Ctrl+B
    • Typewriter : Ctrl+Shift+T
    • Small caps : Ctrl+Shift+C
    • Emphasis : Ctrl+Shift+E
    • New line : Ctrl+Return
    • begin{environment} : Ctrl+E
    • Insert reference to next label : Ctrl+Alt+R
  • "Math" menu :
    • Inline math mode : Ctrl+Shift+M
    • Display math mode : Alt+Shift+M
    • Numbered equations : Ctrl+Shift+N
    • Subscript : Ctrl+Shift+D
    • Superscript : CTrl+Shift+U
    • Frac : Alt+Shift+F
    • Dfrac : Ctrl+Shift+F
    • Sqrt : Ctrl+Shift+Q
    • Left : Ctrl+Shift+L
    • Right : Ctrl+Shift+R
  • "User" menu :
    • User tags : Shift+F1...Shift+F10
    • User commands : Shift+Alt+F1...Shift+Alt+F10
  • "View" menu :
    • Previous Document : Ctrl+PgDown
    • Next Document : Ctrl+PgUp
    • Focus Editor : Ctrl+Alt+Left
    • Focus Viewer : Ctrl+Alt+Right
    • Close Something : Esc
    • Editor Zoom In : Ctrl++
    • Editor Zoom Out : Ctrl+-
    • Fullscreeen Mode : F11

4.13 Description of the cwl format

cwl stands for completion word list and is a file format originally used in Kile to define the commands listed in the completer. TeXstudio uses an extended format of cwls to include additional semantic information and allow for cursor and placeholder placement. It uses them for the following purposes:

  • Populating the autocompletion
  • Knowledge on the valid commands in the current document (depending on \usepackage statements)
  • Semantic information that provide additional context in the editor; e.g. a \ref-like command will check for the existence of the referenced label

4.13.1 cwl file format

Each line of a cwl file defines a command. Comment lines are possible and start with . The command syntax is

If no classification is given, the command is considered valid at any position in a LaTeX document. The char cannot be used inside a , as it has special meaning:

  • (at start of line): also load packagename.cwl. This should be used to indicate that a package depends on other packages.
  • (at start of line): define a letter replacement, e.g. "a -> √§ for German. Only used for letter replacement in spell checking (babel)
  • (at start of line): start definition of keyvals for , see graphicx.cwl in source code. To specify possible values for keys, add them after # e.g.

HomeCoding »Writing »Photography »


Getting to Grips with LaTeX

Bibliographies with BibTeX

by Andrew Roberts

For any academic/research writing, incorporating your references into your document is an important task. Fortunately, as LaTeX was aimed for this sort of work, it has a variety of features that make dealing with your references much simpler. LaTeX has built in support for citing references. However, a much more powerful and flexible solution is achieved thanks to an auxiliary tool called BibTeX (which comes bundled as standard with Latex.)

BibTeX allows you to store all your references in an external, flat-file database. You can then easily link this database to any Latex document, and cite any reference that is contained within the file. This is often more convenient that embedding them at the end of every document you write. You can have a centralised store of your bibliography, that can be linked to as many documents as you wish (write once, read many!) Of course, you can split your bibliographies over as many files as you wish, so you could have a file of references concerning the theory of relativity, and another about quantum physics. And if you were writing about the Grand Unifying Theory (GUT), which tries to bridge the gap between the inconsistencies of these two theories, then you can easily link both to your current document, as well another file of references about GUT, for example. It's up to you how you store your references, of course.


The previous tutorial introduced the idea of embedding references at the end of the document, and then using the command to cite them within the text. In this tutorial, I want to do a little better than this method, as it's not as flexible as it could be. Which is why I wish to concentrate on using BibTeX.

A BibTeX database is stored as a .bib file. It is a plain text file, and so can be viewed and edited easily. The structure of the file is also quite simple. An example of a BibTeX entry:

@article{greenwade93, author = "George D. Greenwade", title = "The {C}omprehensive {T}ex {A}rchive {N}etwork ({CTAN})", year = "1993", journal = "TUGBoat", volume = "14", number = "3", pages = "342--351" }

Each entry begins with the declaration of the reference type, in the form of . BibTeX knows of practically all types you can think of, common ones such as book, article, and for papers presented at conferences, there is inproceedings, etc. In this example, I have referred to an article within a journal.

After the type, you must have a left curly brace '' to signify the beginning of the reference attributes. The first one follows immediately after the brace, which is the citation key. This key must be unique for all entries in your bibliography. It is with this identifier that you will use within your document to cross-reference it to this entry. It is up to you as to how you wish to label each reference, but there is a loose standard in which you use the author's surname, followed by the year of publication. This is the scheme that I use in this tutorial.

Next, it should be clear that what follows are the relevant fields and data for that particular reference. The field names on the left are BibTeX keywords. They are followed by an equals sign (=) where the value for that field is then placed. BibTeX expects you to explicitly label the beginning and end of each value. I personally use quotation marks ("), however, you also have the option of using curly braces ('{', '}'). But as you will soon see, curly braces have other roles, within attributes, so prefer not to use them for this job as they can get more confusing.

Remember that each attribute must be followed by a comma to delimit one from another. You do not need to add a comma to the last attribute, since the closing brace will tell BibTeX that there are no more attributes for this entry, although you won't get an error if you do.

It can take a while to learn what the reference types are, and what fields each type has available (and which ones are required or optional, etc). So I've prepared a BibTeX cheat sheet for all entry types and fields with descriptions. It may be worth bookmarking or printing these pages so that they are easily at hand when you need them.


BibTeX can be quite clever with names of authors. It can accept names in forename surname or surname, forename. I personally use the former, but remember that the order you input them (or any data within an entry for that matter) is customisable and so you can get BibTeX to manipulate the input and then output it however you like. If you use the forename surname method, then you must be careful with a few special names, where there are compound surnames, for example "John von Neumann". In this form, BibTeX assumes that the last word in the surname, and everything before is the forename, plus any middle names. You must therefore manually tell BibTeX to keep the 'von' and 'Newman' together. This is achieved easily using curly braces. So the final result would be "John {von Neumann}". If course, this is easily avoided with the surname, forename, since you have a comma to separate the surname from the forename. Of course, you use your own preference.

Secondly, there is the issue of how to tell BibTeX when a reference has more than one author. This is very simply done by putting the keyword 'and in between every author. As we can see from another example:

@book{goossens93, author = "Michel Goossens and Frank Mittlebach and Alexander Samarin", title = "The Latex Companion", year = "1993", publisher = "Addison-Wesley", address = "Reading, Massachusetts" }

This book has three authors, and each is separated as described. Of course, when BibTeX processes and outputs this, there will only be an 'and' between the penultimate and last authors, but within the .bib file, it needs the and's so that it can keep track of the individual authors.

Preserving capital letters

In the event that BibTeX has been set to not preserve all capitalisation within titles, problems can occur, especially if you are referring to proper nouns, or acronyms. To tell BibTeX to keep them, use curly braces around the letter in question, (or letters, if it's an acronym) and all will be well! As you can see in the following first entry example above:

Getting current LaTeX document to use your .bib file

This is not actually very difficult. At the end of your Latex file (that is, after the content, but before , you need to place the following commands:

\bibliographystyle{plain} \bibliography{sample}

Bibliography styles are files recognised by BibTeX that tell it how to format the information stored in the .bib file when processed for output. And so the first command listed above is declaring which style file to use. The style file in this instance is plain.bst (which comes as standard with BibTeX). You do not need to add the .bst extension when using this command, as it is assumed. Despite its name, the plain style does a pretty good job (look at the output of this tutorial to see what I mean).

The second command is the one that actually specifies the .bib file you wish to use. The one I created for this tutorial was called sample.bib, but once again, you don't include the file extension. At the moment, the .bib file is in the same directory as the LaTeX document too. However, if your .bib file was elsewhere (which makes sense if you intend to maintain a centralised database of references for all your research), you need to specify the path as well, e.g .

Now that LaTeX and BibTeX know where to look for the appropriate files, actually citing the references is fairly trivial. The is the command you need, making sure that the ref_key corresponds exactly to one of the entries in the .bib file. If you wish to cite more that one reference at the same time, do the following: .

Why won't LaTeX generate any output?

The addition of BibTeX adds extra complexity for the processing of the source to the desired output. This is largely hidden to the user, but because of all the complexity of the referencing of citations from your source LaTeX file to the database entries in another file, you actually need multiple passes to accomplish the task. This means you have to run LaTeX a number of times, where each pass, it will perform a particular task until it has managed to resolve all the citation references. Here's what you need to type:

  1. (doesn't require .tex extension)
  2. (doesn't require .bib extension)

After the first LaTeX run, you will see errors such as:

LaTeX Warning: Citation `lamport94' on page 1 undefined on input line 21. ... LaTeX Warning: There were undefined references.

The next step is to run 'bibtex' on that same LaTeX source (and not on the actual .bib file) to then define all the references within that document. You should see output like the following:

This is BibTeX, Version 0.99c (Web2C 7.3.1) The top-level auxiliary file: bib.aux The style file: plain.bst Database file #1: sample.bib

The third step, which is invoking LaTeX for the second time will see more errors like "". Don't be alarmed, it's almost complete. As you can guess, all you have to do is follow its instructions, and run LaTeX for the third time, and the document will be output as expected, without further problems (as a DVI file. See Absolote beginners tutorial if you need reminding how to convert them into PS or PDF.)

What about citation styles other than numerical, e.g., Harvard?

Hopefully, you have already looked at the PDF output of this tutorial. You will have noticed that the document ends with an automatically generated 'References' section. Each reference is numbered and each citation corresponds to the numbers. The numeric style of citation is quite common in scientific writing. In other disciplines, the author-year style, e.g., (Roberts, 2003), such as Harvard is preferred, and is in fact becoming increasingly common within scientific publications. A discussion about which is best will not occur here. I shall merely provide details for those who wish to have the choice.


Natbib is a package written for LaTeX to do just this job. In fact, it can supersede LaTeX's own citation commands, as Natbib allows the user to easily switch between Harvard or numeric. In order to demonstrate Natbib, I've modified the original LaTeX file to take advantage of the additional functionality. Therefore, for the rest of this section, I shall be referring to bib-har.tex which can be accessed, along with the PDF of its output, at the bottom of this page.

The first job is to add the following to your preamble in order to get LaTeX to use the Natbib package:


Also, you need to change the bibliography style file to be used, so edit the appropriate line at the bottom of the file so that it reads: . Once done, it is basically a matter of altering the existing commands to display the type of citation you want.

Citation commandNatbib output
Goossens et al. (1993)
(Goossens et al., 1993)
Goossens, Mittlebach, and Samarin (1993)
(Goossens, Mittlebach, and Samarin, 1993)

The main commands simply add a t for 'textual' or p for 'parenthesised', to the basic command. You will also notice how Natbib by default will compress references with three or more authors to the more concise 1st surname et al version. By adding an asterisk (*), you can override this default and list all authors associated with that citation. There some other less common commands that Natbib supports, such as , , etc., which are fairly obvious.

The final area that I wish to cover about Natbib is customising its citation style. There is a command called that can be used to override the defaults and change certain settings. For example, I have put the following in the preamble:


The command requires six mandatory parameters.

  1. The symbol for the opening bracket.
  2. The symbol for the closing bracket.
  3. The symbol that appears between multiple citations.
  4. This argument takes a letter:
    • n - numerical style.
    • s - numerical superscript style.
    • any other letter - author-year style.
  5. The punctuation to appear between the author and the year (in parenthetical case only).
  6. The punctuation used between years, in multiple citations when there is a common author. e.g., (Chomsky 1956, 1957). If you want an extra space, then you need .
So as you can see. This package is quite flexible, especially as you can easily switch between different citation styles by changing a single parameter. Do have a look at the Natbib manual, it's a short document and you can learn even more about how to use it.

Customising bibliography appearance

In my mind, one the main advantages of BibTeX, especially for people who write many research papers, is the ability to customise your bibliography to suit the requirements of a given publication. You will notice how different publications tend to have their own style of formatting references, which authors must adhere to if they want their manuscript publishing. In fact, established journals and conference organisers often will have created their own bibliography style (.bst file) for those users of BibTeX, to do all the hard work for you.

It can achieve this because of the nature of the .bib database, where all the information about your references is stored in a structured format, but nothing about style. This is a common theme in Latex in general, where it tries as much as possible to keep content and presentation separate - as it should be!

A bibliography style file (.bst) will tell LaTeX how to format each attribute, what order to put them in, what punctuation to use in between particular attributes etc. Unfortunately, creating such a style by hand is not a trivial task. Which is why Makebst (also known as custom-bib) is the tool we need.

Makebst can be used to automatically generate a .bst file based on your needs. It is very simple, and actually asks you a series of questions about your preferences. Once complete, it will then output the appropriate style file for you to use.

It should be installed with the LaTeX distribution (otherwise, you can download it) and it's very simple to initiate. At the command line, type:

latex makebst

LaTeX will find the relevant file and the questioning process will begin. You will have to answer quite a few (although, note that the default answers are pretty sensible), which means it would be impractical to go through an example in this tutorial. However, it is fairly straight-forward. And if you require further guidance, then there is a comprehensive manual available. I'd recommend experimenting with it and seeing what the results are when applied to a LaTeX document.

If you are using a custom built .bst file, it is important that LaTeX can find it! So, make sure it's in the same directory as the Latex source file, unless you are using one of the standard style files (such as plain or plainnat, that come bundled with Latex - these will be automatically found in the directories that they are installed. Also, make sure the name of the .bst file you want to use is reflected in the command (but don't include the .bst extension!).


Although it can take a little time to get to grips with BibTeX, in the long term, it's an efficient way to handle you references. It's not uncommon to find .bib files on websites that people compile as a list of their own publications, or a survey of relevant works within a given topic, etc. Or in those huge, online bibliography databases, you often find BibTeX versions of publications, so it's a quick cut-and-paste into your own .bib file, and then no more hassle!

Having all you references in one place is a big advantage in my opinion. And having then in a structured form, that allows customisable output is another one. There are a variety of free utilities that can load you .bib files, and allow you to view them in a more efficient manner, as well as sorting them and checking for errors.

Files: bib.tex | bib.pdf | bib-har.tex | bib-har.pdf | sample.bib
Useful resources: Natbib manual | Makebst manual | BibTeX entries cheat sheet - A reference sheet summarising all BibTeX types and fields.

Last updated: February 22, 2012

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Andrew Roberts © 2018

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